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Sequential Molecular Events of Functional Trade-Offs in 5-Hydroxyisourate Hydrolase Before and After Gene Duplication Led to the Evolution of Transthyretin During Chordate Diversification

  • Kiyoshi Yamauchi
  • Kentaro Kasai
Original Article

Abstract

Transthyretin (TTR), a plasma thyroid hormone distributor protein (THDP), emerged from 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase (HIUHase), an enzyme involved in urate metabolism, by gene duplication at a stage of chordate evolution. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed the presence of two His-rich segments in the primitive TTRs. Using several HIUHase and TTR mutants, we investigated 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) hydrolysis activity and thyroid hormone (TH) binding activity to elucidate how a novel function as a THDP arose. Lancelet HIUHase was found to have higher enzyme activity than trout HIUHase. Two amino acid substitutions, R54E/Y119T, at the active sites of HIUHase, exerted weak [125I]-3,3′,5-triiodo-l-thyronine ([125I]T3) binding activity with a concomitant loss of HIU hydrolysis activity. Addition of 3×His (3×H) to the N-terminal end weakened HIU hydrolysis activity of both lancelet and trout HIUHases, whereas it enhanced T3-binding activity of HIUHase R54E/Y119T. Trout HIUHase 3×H R54E/Y119T had higher [125I]T3-binding activity than that of lancelet HIUHase 3×H R54E/Y119T, with a Kd of 143 nM, and displayed metal dependency and no TH binding specificity. Deletion of the N-terminal His-rich segment from lamprey TTR decreased T3-binding activity, while addition of 3×H to trout TTR increased T3-binding activity, while maintaining TH binding specificity. Our results suggest that functional trade-offs of HIU hydrolysis activity with TH binding activity might have sequentially occurred before and after gene duplication, and that TH binding specificity and high-affinity sites may have been acquired later in the course of TTR evolution.

Keywords

Transthyretin Thyroid hormone Hydroxyisourate hydrolases Functional trade-off Evolution 

Abbreviations

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CBB

Coomassie brilliant blue

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

HIC

Hydrophobic interaction column chromatography

HIU

5-Hydroxyisourate

HIUHase

5-Hydroxyisourate hydrolase

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

Kd

Dissociation constant

MBC

Maximum binding capacity

PAGE

Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

RACE

Rapid amplification of cDNA end

rT3

Reverse T3 or 3,3′,5′-triiodo-l-thyronine

RT

Reverse transcription

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

T2

3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine

T3

3,3′,5-Triiodo-l-thyronine

T4

l-Thyroxine

TBS

Tris-buffered saline

TH

Thyroid hormone

THBP

TH binding protein

Triac

3,3′,5-Triiodothyroacetic acid

Tetrac

3,3′,5,5′-Tetraiodothyroacetic acid

TTR

Transthyretin

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Akihiro Ito, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Taishi Aoki, Shunsuke Suzuki, Syuko Sakai, and Yuki Ota for their technical assistance in recombinant protein preparation and hormone binding assays. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of ScienceShizuoka UniversityShizuokaJapan

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