Evolutionary Dynamics of Copy Number and Meiotic Recombination in Murine 5S rDNA: Possible Involvement of Natural Selection
We investigated evolutionary trends of the 5S ribosomal RNA gene in the house mouse, Mus musculus. First, we assessed the 5S cluster and copy numbers in eight laboratory strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The copy numbers in seven lines were estimated to be around 130–170 copies per cluster, with 63 copies in the remaining strain, implying that the copy number can change drastically and has been maintained under certain evolutionary constraints at ~ 140 copies. Second, we addressed the frequency of meiotic recombination mediated by the 5S cluster by performing a mating experiment with laboratory strains, and found that the 5S cluster did not accelerate recombination events. Third, we surveyed recombination events of the 5S-containing chromosome region in wild mice from the Japanese Islands, where the two subspecies lineages, M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus, are historically mingled, and found that the influence of the 5S cluster on meiotic recombination was limited. Finally, we examined the nucleotide diversity of six genes in the neighboring regions of the 5S cluster and found reduced genetic diversity in the regions on both sides of the cluster, suggesting the involvement of either positive or background selection in the population-level sequence similarity of the 5S clusters. Therefore, the mouse 5S genes are considered to be evolving toward sequence similarity within a given cluster by certain intrachromosomal mechanisms and toward sharing of a specific 5S cluster within a population by certain selective processes.
KeywordsMus musculus 5S rDNA Copy number Recombination Natural selection
We would like to thank Kuniya Abe, Gohta Kinoshita, Motoko Kobayashi, Nobumoto Miyashita, Ritsuko Nakayama, Kazuo Moriwaki, Masahiko Nishimura, Susumu Sakurai, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Toyoyuki Takada, Mie Terashima, Kimiyuki Tsuchiya, Hiromichi Yonekawa, and Shigeharu Wakana for providing valuable comments on an earlier manuscript resulting from this study. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped improve the manuscript. This study was supported by a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research (C) to HS (No. 15K07177) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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