A partial sequence of cytochrome b (228 bp) gene of mitochondrial DNA was successfully determined from rib bones of the dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus falconeri BUSK, which were excavated from Charkadio cave of the island of Tilos, Dodekanisa, Greece. This is the first report of DNA sequence of a dwarf elephant. The sequences were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships among Elephantidae. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods provided identical topologies. The results support the "Palaeoloxodon–Elephas" clade, which is consistent with previous morphological reports according to which Palaeoloxodon is more closely related to Elephas than to Loxodonta or Mammuthus.
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Poulakakis, N., Theodorou, G., Zouros, E. et al. Molecular Phylogeny of the Extinct Pleistocene Dwarf Elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus falconeri from Tilos Island, Dodekanisa, Greece . J Mol Evol 55, 364–374 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-002-2337-x