Prominent nose, its modalities and their treatment
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Size of the nose varies in the different parts of the world, and perception of what is the aesthetically acceptable nose shows large differences depending on the ethnic background, type of the society, gender and age. Nose which is generally larger than the average nose in a given society, particularly regarding the height of its nasal bridge, could be defined as a prominent nose.
Photographs of the 414 consecutive patients who underwent rhinoplasty by the author during the years 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Attention was directed to the following outer features: overall length, height and width of the nose, nasofrontal angle, nasolabial angle, nose-lip and nose-chin relations, shape and position of the chin and the evaluation of the respiratory function. Among determinants was formula of Goode, which delineates the approximate relationship between tip projection and nasal length.
A total of 144 patients, 112 females and 31 males, who fulfilled criteria of prominent nose were selected for the further analysis. A total of 70% of the patients were of Middle-Eastern origin. The following four types of prominent nose were recognised: (1) short prominent nose, or tension nose was present in 38 patients. It has overprojecting dorsum, which usually forms a hump. Nasolabial angle is obtuse, and nasal spina is frequently overgrown. The rate of functional problems is quite high due to the overdevelopment and subsequent deviation of the septal cartilage. (2) Long prominent nose, present in 96 patients, usually has an arched dorsum, sharp NL angle and drooping tip. (3) Long nose depending on the height of the dorsum in the lateral projection can be the low long nose and it was seen in four patients, or when the nose is both long and the tip is overprojecting, it is called Pinocchio nose and it was present in eight patients. (4) Rhinomegaly is the term describing nose which is very large in all dimensions, the height, length and width and was also seen in eight patients.
Prominent nose has several modalities and each of them requires different techniques applied during the surgical intervention. Both aesthetic and functional topics are frequently present, and multiple nasal structures, both external and internal, are commonly involved. In the aesthetically pleasing Caucasian nose, Goode’s ratio should equal 0.55 to 0.60. If there is before operation unrecognised deviation from this norm, which is also persistent after the rhinoplasty, the final result will be substandard.
Level of Evidence IV, risk / prognostic study.
KeywordsProminent nose Large nose Rhinomegaly Rhinoplasty Middle-eastern rhinoplasty
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of retrospective study, formal consent is not required.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.
Conflict of interest
Igor Niechajev declares that he has no conflict of interest.
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