European Journal of Plastic Surgery

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 211–218 | Cite as

Looking good: factors affecting the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery

  • Viren Swami
  • Adriane Arteche
  • Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic
  • Adrian Furnham
  • Stefan Stieger
  • Tanja Haubner
  • Martin Voracek
Original Paper


The present study examined various factors associated with the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery in a community sample of Austrian participants. One-hundred and sixty-eight women and 151 men completed a questionnaire measuring how likely they were to consider common cosmetic procedures. The results showed that women were more likely than men to consider most cosmetic procedures. Path analysis revealed that personal experience of having had cosmetic surgery was a significant predictor of future likelihood, while media exposure (viewing advertisements or television programs, or reading articles about cosmetic surgery) mediated the influence of vicarious experience and sex. These results are discussed in relation to previous work examining the factors associated with the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery.


Cosmetic surgery Self-improvement Sex differences Path analysis 



Tanja Haubner is supported by a Young Researcher Mini Grant from the Dean’s Office, School of Psychology, University of Vienna.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viren Swami
    • 1
  • Adriane Arteche
    • 2
  • Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic
    • 2
  • Adrian Furnham
    • 3
  • Stefan Stieger
    • 4
  • Tanja Haubner
    • 5
  • Martin Voracek
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WestminsterLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Core Unit for Medical EducationMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  5. 5.Department of Basic Psychological Research, School of PsychologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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