European Journal of Plastic Surgery

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Analysis and treatment of hemifacial microsomia

  • I. T. JacksonEmail author
Master Class in Plastic Surgery

In the late forties, Braithwaite and Watson [1] reported this condition but it was not until the early sixties, that Gorlin and Pindborg provided a detailed description of hemifacial microsomia [2]. This complex and variable congenital anomaly involves the first and second brachial arches and the nasal placode. Usually it is unilateral, but in 5–15% it can be bilateral. A similar condition is Goldenhar’s syndrome, which is craniofacial microsomia and although other names have been coined, e.g. the first and second brachial arch syndrome, lateral facial dysplasia, facial auricular vertebral deformity, ocular auricular vertebral dysplasia and unilateral otomandibular dysostosis. Most cases are sporadic although autosomal dominant and recessive conditions have been reported.

The syndrome has many features. In the ear area, there may be a microtia or preauricular abnormalities, and these can vary from severe to mild. There also may be cardiac or renal problems and deformity of the skeleton...


Temporomandibular Joint Zygomatic Arch Glenoid Fossa Free Tissue Transfer Choanal Atresia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Craniofacial and Reconstructive SurgeryProvidence Hospital, Third Floor Fisher CenterSouthfieldUSA

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