European Journal of Plastic Surgery

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 356–358 | Cite as

Nipple-areola reconstruction: outcome assessment

  • M. Hussain
  • L. Rynn
  • C. Riordan
  • P. J. Regan
Original Paper


The creation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) is usually the final step in the surgical treatment of breast cancer patients. It has substantial aesthetic and symbolic implications for the patients involved. In this study we reviewed 17 consecutive nipple-areola reconstructions over a 4-year period. Breast reconstruction in these patients was performed using a combination of breast implant only (n=4) and flap reconstructions (latissimus dorsi, TRAM) (n=13). The skate flap technique was used for nipple reconstruction in all of these patients. Patients were assessed objectively and subjectively. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 48 months (mean 20 months). Mean nipple projection at review was 6.75 mm (range 5.2–9 mm) and mean nipple diameter was 12 mm (range 8–14 mm). The majority of the patients were satisfied with the results.


Nipple-areola complex Breast reconstruction Skate flap technique Nipple reconstruction 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Hussain
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Rynn
    • 1
  • C. Riordan
    • 1
  • P. J. Regan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand SurgeryUniversity College HospitalGalwayIreland
  2. 2.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, First Floor, Grosvenor WingSt. George’s HospitalLondonUK

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