Acta Informatica

, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp 487–519 | Cite as

The model checking fingerprints of CTL operators

  • Andreas Krebs
  • Arne MeierEmail author
  • Martin Mundhenk
Original Article


The aim of this study is to understand the inherent expressive power of CTL operators. We investigate the complexity of model checking for all CTL fragments with one CTL operator and arbitrary Boolean operators. This gives us a fingerprint of each CTL operator. The comparison between the fingerprints yields a hierarchy of the operators that mirrors their strength with respect to model checking.



The authors thank Stephan Fischer for helpful discussions on the proof of Lemma 4 and Martin Krejka for a simplification of the proof of Lemma 14. The authors also thank the referees for many valuable comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arbeitsbereich Theoretische Informatik/Formale Sprachen, Wilhelm-Schickard-Institut für InformatikUniversität TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Theoretische InformatikLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany
  3. 3.Institut für InformatikFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

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