Central vein disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of central venous cannulations, indwelling dialysis catheters, and arteriovenous grafts. Brachiocephalic vein (BCV) stenosis or thrombotic occlusion can occur in dialysis patients, and the presence of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula can cause cerebral venous hypertension due to retrograde flow in the ipsilateral jugular vein. A 53-year-old man receiving hemodialysis (left brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistula) presented with impaired consciousness and seizures related to status epilepticus due to left temporal multifocal hemorrhages. Brain computed tomography and angiogram showed left cortical vein congestion without intracranial arteriovenous shunt. Complementary left brachial angiogram showed a left BCV stenosis and jugular and cerebral high-flow venous reflux with cortical venous reflux from the hemodialysis fistula. The left arm shunt resulted in severe cerebral venous hypertension due to ipsilateral stenosis of the BCV. BCV angioplasty immediately resolved the cerebral reflux. Patients with hemodialysis fistulas are at a higher risk of developing these intracerebral hemorrhage complications.
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Haruma, J., Escalard, S., Smajda, S. et al. Left temporal hemorrhage caused by cerebral venous reflux of a brachio-brachial hemodialysis fistula. Neuroradiology 62, 1341–1344 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02457-1