Radiological imaging features of the basal ganglia that may predict progression to hemicraniectomy in large territory middle cerebral artery infarct

Abstract

Purpose

Predicting which patients are at risk for hemicraniectomy can be helpful for triage and can help preserve neurologic function if detected early. We evaluated basal ganglia imaging predictors for early hemicraniectomy in patients with large territory anterior circulation infarct.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated patients with ischemic infarct admitted from January 2005 to July 2011. Patients with malignant cerebral edema refractory to medical therapy or with herniating signs such as depressed level of consciousness, anisocoria, and contralateral leg weakness were triaged to hemicraniectomy. Admission images were reviewed for presence of caudate, lentiform nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus), or basal ganglia (caudate + lentiform nucleus) infarction.

Results

Thirty-one patients with large territory MCA infarct, 10 (32%), underwent hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the caudate nucleus (9/10 vs 6/21, p = 0.002) or basal ganglia (5/10 vs 2/21, p = 0.02) predicted progression to hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the lentiform nucleus only did not predict progression to hemicraniectomy. Sensitivity for patients who did and did not have hemicraniectomy were 50% (5/10) and 90.5% (19/21). For caudate nucleus and caudate plus lentiform nucleus infarcts, the crude- and age-adjusted odds of progression to hemicraniectomy were 9.5 (1.4–64.3) and 6.6 (0.78–55.4), respectively.

Conclusion

Infarction of the caudate nucleus or basal ganglia correlated with patients progressing to hemicraniectomy. Infarction of the lentiform nucleus alone did not.

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Correspondence to Asim Z. Mian.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required.

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Mian, A.Z., Edasery, D., Sakai, O. et al. Radiological imaging features of the basal ganglia that may predict progression to hemicraniectomy in large territory middle cerebral artery infarct. Neuroradiology 59, 477–484 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-017-1823-1

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Keywords

  • Stroke
  • Basal ganglia
  • Hemicraniectomy
  • CT
  • MRI