Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

Abstract

Introduction

In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami.

Methods

A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results

We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami.

Conclusion

Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis.

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Acknowledgments

In memory of my dear friend, Massimo Gallucci, Professor of Neuroradiology.

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We declare that this manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

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We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Giulio Zuccoli.

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Zuccoli, G., Yannes, M.P., Nardone, R. et al. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015). Neuroradiology 57, 973–989 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-015-1568-7

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Keywords

  • Basal ganglia
  • Thalamus
  • Pediatrics
  • MRI