Helicoverpa armigera is a devastating polyphagous and cosmopolitan crop pest. There are reports of this insect being resistant to a variety of pesticides raising concern worldwide. The Octopamine (OA) binding β2-like receptor (OAR), a GPCR, is widely distributed in the nervous system of the insect and plays essential roles in the physiology and development and thus is an important target for insecticides. Yet, the molecular characterization of the H. armigera OAR (HarmOAR) and rational design of compounds based on this receptor is lacking. As a first step, we performed multiple sequence alignment of all insect OARs, which revealed that the sequences contained all conserved class A GPCR motifs. Phylogenetic studies showed clade-specific variations in the protein sequences primarily arising owing to differences in the ICL3 loop region. Further, a structural model of HarmOAR was built using the inactive human β2AR as a template. 0.9 µs atomistic simulations revealed conserved inter helical contacts and water molecules of HarmOAR. The detailed binding of octopamine was studied using molecular docking and 0.3 µs atomistic simulations. Twenty-two insecticides active against octopamine receptors of other insects were compiled and docked to HarmOAR followed by rescoring with binding free energies to prioritize them for H. armigera. Our study suggests α-terpineol to be a good candidate as an insecticide or insect repellent for Helicoverpa armigera.
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MJ and NG thank Bioinformatics Centre for infrastructure support. RJ would like to acknowledge the support provided by CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory as a start-up fund. SN thanks the Department of Biotechnology, India, for fellowship.
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Gujar, N., V. Nikte, S., Joshi, R.S. et al. Molecular Characterization of the β2-like Octopamine Receptor of Helicoverpa armigera. J Membrane Biol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00232-021-00172-3
- Helicoverpa armigera
- Octopamine receptor
- Molecular dynamics