Apple Cider Vinegar Modulates Serum Lipid Profile, Erythrocyte, Kidney, and Liver Membrane Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Mice Fed High Cholesterol

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentially beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) supplementation on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, liver and kidney membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant levels in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed high cholesterol. Four groups of ten female mice were treated as follows: Group I received no treatment and was used as control. Group II was OVX mice. Group III received ACV intragastrically (0.6 % of feed), and group IV was OVX and was treated with ACV as described for group III. The treatment was continued for 28 days, during which the mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocyte, liver and kidney, triglycerides, total, and VLDL cholesterol levels in serum were higher in the OVX group than in groups III and IV. The levels of vitamin E in liver, the kidney and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) were decreased in group II. The GSH-Px, vitamin C, E, and β-carotene, and the erythrocyte GSH and GSH-Px values were higher in kidney of groups III and IV, but in liver the vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased. In conclusion, ACV induced a protective effect against erythrocyte, kidney, and liver oxidative injury, and lowered the serum lipid levels in mice fed high cholesterol, suggesting that it possesses oxidative stress scavenging effects, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes and vitamin.

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Abbreviations

ACV:

Apple cider vinegar

GSH:

Glutathione

GSH-Px:

Glutathione peroxidase

HDL:

High-density lipoprotein

i.p.:

Intraperitoneal

LDL:

Low-density lipoprotein

OVX:

Ovariectomized

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

VLDL:

Very low-density lipoprotein

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Acknowledgments

MN formulated the present hypothesis and was responsible for writing the report. MG, GS, CÖ, MK, and ES were responsible for analysis of the data. The authors wish thanks to Dr. Manuel Flores-Arce (Tijuana University, Mexico) for polishing English of the manuscript. The study was partially supported by Scientific Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Institute (TUBITAK-2010).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in the current study.

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Correspondence to Mustafa Nazıroğlu.

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Nazıroğlu, M., Güler, M., Özgül, C. et al. Apple Cider Vinegar Modulates Serum Lipid Profile, Erythrocyte, Kidney, and Liver Membrane Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Mice Fed High Cholesterol. J Membrane Biol 247, 667–673 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00232-014-9685-5

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Keywords

  • Oxidative stress
  • Glutathione peroxidase
  • Ovariectomize
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Antioxidant vitamins
  • Liver