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Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer inside tube with stable plasmonic TiN nanofluid and twisted tape combination for solar thermal applications


The present experimental study involves a convective heat transfer performance analysis of the fully developed laminar flow of TiN nanofluid through a uniformly heated U pipe with and without twisted tape (H/D = 5) combination. The TiN nanofluid, with its enormous thermophysical properties, opens up a new dimension in solar thermal applications. TiN nanofluid pretends to have photoabsorption properties (localized surface plasmon resonance). The preparation of stable, efficient, low-cost TiN nanofluid and its application is an emerging area of research. Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles with sizes of 40–50 nm were used to make distilled water-based nanofluid at concentrations of 0%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%, and 0.1%. The two-step preparation method is preferred to prepare a stable nanofluid. The thermophysical properties are evaluated experimentally over a wide temperature range. The experiments were performed at flow rate (0.25–1.25 LPM), volume concentration (0–0.1%), inclination angle (35 degree), and heat flux (1000 W/m2). The nusselt number, convective heat transfer coefficient, and friction factor were evaluated at a bulk mean temperature. The convective heat transfer performance increases with volume concentration and Reynolds number. The friction factor decreases with a rise in volume concentration and Reynolds number. The nusselt number of the entire test section increased by 30.04% for a 0.1% volume concentration of TiN nanofluid and 42.8% for 0.1% of TiN nanofluid with twisted tape (H/D = 5) combination. The convective heat transfer performance enhancement is obtained at a cost of 2% pressure drop. The correlation has been developed to estimate the nusselt number and friction factor.

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As :

Surface area





I :



Heat transfer coefficient

K :

Thermal conductivity

L :

Length of U pipe

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow rate


Twisted tape


Savitribai Phule Pune University

Cp :

Specific heat


Inlet Temperature


Outlet Temperature

nf :


np :



Reynolds number


Nusselt number


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Deshmukh Kishor Bhausaheb reports equipment, drugs, or supplies was provided by Amrutvahini College of Pharmacy. Deshmukh Kishor Bhausaheb reports equipment, drugs, or supplies was provided by R H Sapat College of Engineering Management Studies and Research. Deshmukh Kishor Bhausaheb reports equipment, drugs was provided by Department of Chemistry, SPPU, Pune. Deshmukh Kishor Bhausaheb reports statistical analysis was provided by Amrutvahini College of Engineering.

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• The preparation and characterization of stable plasmonic TiN nanofluid is thoroughly discussed.

• TiN nanofluid has shown exceptional thermal performance.

• The convective heat transfer performance of TiN nanofluid and pressure drop characteristics are investigated with and without the twisted tape (H/D = 5) combination.

• The influence of TiN nanoparticle volume concentration, flow rate, and Reynolds number on heat transfer performance is investigated.

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Deshmukh, K., Karmare, S. & Patil, P. Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer inside tube with stable plasmonic TiN nanofluid and twisted tape combination for solar thermal applications. Heat Mass Transfer (2023).

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