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Experimental study of drying garlic slices (Allium sativum L.) using a fluidized-bed dryer


The drying kinetics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) slices in a fluidized bed were investigated experimentally and modeled mathematically in this study. A pilot-scale fluidized bed dryer was set up for this purpose where it was used to study the behavior of garlic slices during the fluidization drying process. The fluidized bed dryer used flow rates of 0.034 kg s-1 and temperatures ranging from 45 °C to 60 °C. The maximum temperature of the garlic was set at 60 °C, as high temperatures can damage or reduce the final quality of the dried products. The results obtained showed that the optimal temperature for drying garlic is 50 °C. A predictive model was established to study the heat and mass transfer phenomenon in the fluidized bed. A good agreement was found between the experimental and predicted results obtained by the developed mathematical model.

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A p :

Particle surface area, m2

C p :

Specific heat, J kg1 K1

D :

Diffusion coefficient, m2 S1

dp :

Average particle diameter, (m)

E a :

Activation energy, J mol1

g :

Gravitational acceleration 9.81 ms2

h T :

Convective heat transfer coefficient, Wm2 K1

K :

Thermal conductivity, W m1K1

L :

Average thickness of garlic slice, m

M :

Moisture content, Kg water.kg1[w.b.]

m g :

Mass flow rate of dry air, kgs1

m s :

Mass of dry solid in bed, kg

Ps :

Static pressure, Pa

Pt :

Total pressure or stagnation pressure, Pa

R :

Universal gas constant, 8.314, Jmol1 K1

Re mf :

Reynolds number at the minimum fluidization point, (-)

RH :

Relative humidity, %

T :

Temperature, °C

t :

Time, s

va :

Air velocity, m s-1

V p :

Particle volume, m3

Y :

Absolute humidity, kg waterkg1 dry air

Y f :

Absolute ambient humidity, kg waterkg1 dry air

\({\mathrm{\varnothing }}_{\mathrm{s}}\) :

Sphericity, %


Dynamic viscosity, Pa s

ΔHv :

Latent heat of vaporization of water, J kg1

Δt :

Time step

Δx :

Space increment


Density, kgm3

a :


eq :


i :

Node position

ini :



Time interval

p :


s :



Length, Width and Thickness


Fluidized Bed Dryer


Laboratory of Energy and Systems Intelligent


Relative humidity of air


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The authors would like to thank the LESI laboratory, University Djilali Bounaama of Khemis Miliana for their help in conducting this study.

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Correspondence to Mohamed Hemis.

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Abdesselem, W., Hemis, M. & Raghavan, V. Experimental study of drying garlic slices (Allium sativum L.) using a fluidized-bed dryer. Heat Mass Transfer 59, 229–237 (2023).

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