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Digital interferometric studies of jet impingement cooling system


Currently large numbers of electronic components are packed closely together in semiconductor chips and the power densities of VLSI chips range up to 100 W/cm2. Jet impingement cooling is widely used in electronics cooling, as high convective heat transfer rates are required for effective heat dissipation. The jet impingement cooling depends on various parameters and the analysis of all possible combination requires huge cost and time. Various investigative studies have been conducted in the field of jet impingement cooling but the use of digital interferometric techniques has not been prominent. Mach Zehnder interferometric technique is a non-intrusive technique which is extensively used by many researchers to estimate the heat transfer from plates, fins in both air and fluid mediums. The present work focuses on the convective heat transfer studies of jet impingement cooling of a flat plate in air, using digital interferometric technique. The flat heater plate simulating the IC chip under operation was fabricated inhouse and is cooled by a vertical jet of air. Wedge fringe mode has been adopted for the estimation of the heat transfer from the deflection of fringe caused due to the temperature variation. The effect of various parameters on the rate of heat transfer rate was determined with the help of a Design of Experiments software. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of the impingement of an air jet on the flat plate of the experimental setup was done to compare it with the results obtained from experiments. A correlation between the significant parameters affecting jet impingement is proposed, from the experimental results.

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\({T}_{\infty }\) :

Ambient temperature (°C)

\({T}_{s}\) :

Local surface temperature (°C)

\({c}_{p}\) :

Specific heat (J/g K)

\({q}\) :

Heat flux dissipated (W/m2)

\({\lambda }_{o}\) :

Wavelength of light in vacuum (m)

\(G\) :

Gladstone-Dale constant (m3/kg)

\(I\) :

Current (A)

\(l\) :

Length of the plate (m)

\(P\) :

Absolute air pressure (Pa)

\(P\) :

Power (W)

\(Q\) :

Heat energy (W)

\(R\) :

Gas constant (J/kgK)

\(T\) :

Temperature (°C)

\(V\) :

Voltage (V)

\(Z\) :

Length of test section in direction of light beam (m)

\(d\) :

Fringe width (m)

\(k\) :

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

\(m\) :

Mass (g)

\(t\) :

Instantaneous time (s)

\(x\) :

Local distance along fin length (m)

\(\alpha\) :

Angle between line of constant fringe shift and surface (°)


Prandtl number


Reynolds number


Nozzle diameter


Height between nozzle and heated plate


Local convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

\(a\) :


\(l\) :





Mach-Zehnder interferometry


Computational fluid dynamics




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P., V.A., V., S. Digital interferometric studies of jet impingement cooling system. Heat Mass Transfer 59, 347–362 (2023).

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