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Single phase flow of nanofluid including graphite and water in a microchannel

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A Correction to this article was published on 21 August 2020

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In this study, convective heat transfer performance of a nanofluids containing graphite is studied in an industrial microchannel. In the experiments, initially, to prepare nanofluids at the volume fraction values of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%, distilled water has been employed as the base liquid. To provide sedimentation and stabilization of nanofluids in distilled water, Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is utilized as surfactant. Thermophysical properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and specific heat are determined experimentally. Furthermore, by building an experimental setup, in the temperature range of 20–30 °C and with temperature intervals of 2 °C, performance experiments are carried out in a microchannel of which hydraulic diameter is 1.6 × 10−3 m. Additionally, experiments have been conducted using nanofluids at different volumetric rates from 1 to 7 l min−1, heat fluxes from 100 to 1100 W, and volume fractions from 0.5 to 2%. Measuring heat flux, temperature, and flow rate, outcomes such as convective heat transfer coefficient, Reynolds number, and Nusselt number are calculated. The validation process of the experimental results has been performed by plotting the figures of Nusselt numbers vs Reynolds ones, and heat transfer coefficient vs supplied heat considering distilled water and nanofluids having various volumetric proportions. Regarding with the performance of nanofluids against distilled water under similar operating conditions, some proportional positive increase are acquired. Using outcomes attained from experiments, new correlations for Nusselt number have been derived with the R2 values around 0.96, and afterward by means of those correlations experimental data have been compared with those in the literature. A large number of measured and calculated data are given in the paper for other researchers to validate their theoretical models.

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  • 21 August 2020

    The affiliation of the sixth author



Volumetric flow rate (lt min−1)


Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

Ac :

Fin cross sectional area (m2)


Complementary metal oxide semiconductor

cp :

Specific heat at constant pressure (J kg−1 K−1)


Circular diameter (m)

Dh :

Hydraulic diameter (m)


Gravitational constant (m s−2)


Mass flow (kg m−2 s−1)


Convection heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)

Hch :

Channel height (m)

Hfin :

Fin height (m)


Current (Amper)


Thermal conductivity coefficient (W m−1 K−1)


Heat transfer coefficient of the fin material (W m−1 K−1)

Lch :

Micro channel length (m)


Mean absolute percent error (%)


Microchannel heat exchanger


Micro electro-mechanical systems


Micro encapsulated phase change material


Number of channels


Electrical power (W)


Fin element circumference (m)


Electrical resistance (Ω)


Prandtl number


Reynolds number

SDy :

Standard deviation of the dependent variable

SDx1 :

Standard deviation value of variable x1

SDx2 :

Standard deviation value of variable x2

QT :

Total heat power (kW)

qw :

Heat flux (kW m−2)

Ts :

Surface temperature (°C)




Voltage (Volt)

Wch :

Channel thickness (m)

Wfin :

Fin thickness (m)

δtc :

Distance from thermocouple to the channel base (m)


Multiple regression equation


Fin efficiency


Density (kg m−3)

σs :

Surface tension in water capillary pipes (N m−1)


Volume fraction of nanofluid (%)

tC :



Volume fraction

x 1 :

Independent variable for vol [%] Volume Fraction

x 2 :

Independent variable for reynolds Number

x 3 :

Independent variable for prandtl Number

x 4 :

Independent variable for dynamic viscosity of liquid


Constant number

r y, x1 :

Correlation between x1 and y.

r y, x2 :

Correlation between x2 and y.

r x1, x2 :

Correlation between x1 and x2.

β 1 :

The change in Y for each 1 increment change in x1

β 2 :

The change in Y for each 1 increment change in x2

β 3 :

The change in Y for each 1 increment change in x3

β 4 :

The change in Y for each 1 increment change in x4




















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This study has been financially supported by Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department, Project Number: FEB 2013/08-BAGEP. All authors also grateful for the Thailand Research Fund (TRF), the National Research University Project (NRU) and King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi through the “KMUTT 55th Anniversary Commemorative Fund”.

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Correspondence to Ahmet Selim Dalkılıç.

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Yıldız, O., Açıkgöz, Ö., Yıldız, G. et al. Single phase flow of nanofluid including graphite and water in a microchannel. Heat Mass Transfer 56, 1–24 (2020).

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