Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 651–669 | Cite as

Study of high viscous multiphase phase flow in a horizontal pipe

  • Yahaya D. Baba
  • Aliyu M. Aliyu
  • Archibong-Eso Archibong
  • Almabrok A. Almabrok
  • A. I. Igbafe
Original
  • 215 Downloads

Abstract

Heavy oil accounts for a major portion of the world’s total oil reserves. Its production and transportation through pipelines is beset with great challenges due to its highly viscous nature. This paper studies the effects of high viscosity on heavy oil two-phase flow characteristics such as pressure gradient, liquid holdup, slug liquid holdup, slug frequency and slug liquid holdup using an advanced instrumentation (i.e. Electrical Capacitance Tomography). Experiments were conducted in a horizontal flow loop with a pipe internal diameter (ID) of 0.0762 m; larger than most reported in the open literature for heavy oil flow. Mineral oil of 1.0–5.0 Pa.s viscosity range and compressed air were used as the liquid and gas phases respectively. Pressure gradient (measured by means differential pressure transducers) and mean liquid holdup was observed to increase as viscosity of oil is increased. Obtained results also revealed that increase in liquid viscosity has significant effects on flow pattern and slug flow features.

Keywords

High viscosity oil ECT Pressure gradient Flow regime 

Nomenclature

Symbols Denote Units

Fr

Froude number

g

Acceleration due to gravity m. s 2

h

Liquid height m

L

length m

P

Pressure kPa

Re

Reynolds number

V

Velocity m/s

Greek letter

μ

Viscosity Pa.s

ρ

Density kg/m 3

γ

Shear rate s −1

σ

Surface tension N/m

Subscripts

f

Film zone

g

Gas phase

i

interface

l

Liquid phase

m

Mixture phase

o

Oil phase

s

Superficial or slug body

t

Translational

tp

Two-phase

Acronyms

PDF

Probability Density Function

ECT

Electrical Capacitance Tomography

L/D

Length/Distance

MMTC

Multi Modal Tomography Console

3D

Three Dimensional

FAD

Free Air Delivery

ID

Internal Diameter

PIV

Particle Image Velocimetry

LBP

Linear Back Projection

m

Mixture phase

l

liquid

o

Oil phase

s

Superficial

g

Gas

V

Velocity

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors (YD Baba and AM Aliyu) of this paper will like to thank the Nigerian Petroleum Technology Development Fund’s Overseas Scholarship Scheme (OSS) programme for the doctoral degree sponsorship at Cranfield University, the grant numbers are as follows.: PTDF/E/OSS/PHD/BYD/532/12 and PTDF/E/OSS/PHD/AMA/622/12 respectively.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None declared.

References

  1. 1.
    Alboudwarej H, Felix J, Taylor S, Badry R, Bremner C, Brough B, Beshry M (2006) Highlighting heavy oil. Oilfield review 18(2):34–53Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richard M, Emil A (2003) Heavy oil and natural Bitumen-strategic petroleum resources, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 70–03, Eastern Publications Group, [Online]. Available: http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs070-03/fs070-03.html. [Accessed 27 Jun 2013]
  3. 3.
    Meyer RF, Attanasi, ED, Freeman PA (2007) Heavy oil and natural bitumen resources in geological basins of the world: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1084, available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1084/
  4. 4.
    Baba YD, Archibong AE, Aliyu AM, Ameen AI (2017) Slug frequency in high viscosity oil-gas two-phase fl ow : experiment and prediction. Flow Meas Instrum 54(2016):109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baba YD (2016) Experimental investigation of high viscous multiphase flow in horizontal pipelines. PhD Thesis, Cranfield UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Archibong A (2015) Viscous multiphase flow characteristics in pipelines. PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhao Y (2014) High viscosity liquid two-phase flow. PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gokcal B (2008) An experimental and theoretical investigation of slug flow for high oil viscosity in horizontal pipes. PhD Thesis, The University Tulsa, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weisman J, Duncan D, Gibson J, Crawford T (1979) Effects of fluid properties and pipe diameter on two-phase flow patterns in horizontal line. Int J Multiphase Flow 5(C):437–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nadler M, Mewes D (1995) Effects of the liquid viscosity on the phase distributions in horizontal gas-liquid slug flow. Int J Multiphase Flow 21(2):253–266CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crowley CJ, Sam RG, Walliis GB, Metha DC (1985) Slug flow in large diameter pipe. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Conference, No. CONF-841121, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sam RG, Crowley CJ (1986) Investigation of two-phase flow processes in coal slurry/hydrogen heaters. Hanover, NHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brito R, Pereyra E, Sarica C (2013) Effect of medium oil viscosity on two-phase oil-gas flow behavior in horizontal pipes. In Offshore Technology Conference, p. 285Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gokcal B, Wang Q, Zhang H, Sarica C (2006) Effects of high oil viscosity on oil / gas flow behavior in horizontal pipes. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and ExhibitionGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Foletti C, Farisè S, Grassi B, Strazza D, Lancini M, Poesio P (2011) Experimental investigation on two-phase air/high-viscosity-oil flow in a horizontal pipe. Chem Eng Sci 66(23):5968–5975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farsetti S, Farisè S, Poesio P (2014) Experimental investigation of high viscosity oil–air intermittent flow. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 57:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xiao JJ, Shonham O, Brill JP (1990) A comprehensive mechanistic model for two-phase flow in pipelines. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and ExhibitionGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang H-Q, Wang Q, Sarica C, Brill JP (2003) Unified model for gas-liquid pipe flow via slug dynamics—part 1: model development. J Energy Resour Technol 125(4):266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Losi G, Arnone D, Correra S, Poesio P (2016) Modelling and statistical analysis of high viscosity oil / air slug fl ow characteristics in a small diameter horizontal pipe. Chem Eng Sci 148:190–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Archibong A, Zhao Y, Yeung H (2014) Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography & gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows. AIP Conf Proc 1592(1)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhao Y, Lao L, Yeung H (2015) Investigation and prediction of slug flow characteristics in highly viscous liquid and gas flows in horizontal pipes. Chem Eng Res Des 102:124–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Areeba S, Ismail I, Mohd NK (2010) Study of void fraction measurement in a two phase flow by using differential pressure and electrical capacitance tomography. In Fourth Asia International Conference on Mathematical/Analytical Modelling and Computer Simulation (AMS)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hunt A, Pendleton J, Ladam Y (2004) Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid pipe flows using electrical capacitance tomography. In Proceeding of ESDA2004 7th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. pp 1–5Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gamio J, Castro J, Rivera L, Alamilla J, Garcia-Nocetti F, Aguilar L (2005) Visualization of gas-oil two-phase flows in pressurized pipes using electrical capacitance tomography. Flow Meas Instrum 16:129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taitel Y, Dukler AE (1976) A model for predicting flow regime transitions in horizontal and nearhorizontal gas-liquid flow. AICHE J 22(1):47–55Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Petalas N, Aziz K (2000) A mechanistic model for multiphase flow in pipes. J Can Pet Technol 39(6):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Orell A (2005) Experimental validation of a simple model for gas – liquid slug flow in horizontal pipes. Chem Eng Sci 60:1371–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barnea D (1987) A unified model for predicting flow-pattern transitions for the whole range of pipe inclinations. Int J Multiphase Flow 13(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hernandez PV (2007) Gas-liquid two-phase flow in inclined pipes. PhD Thesis, University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arubi T, Yeung H (2011) Gamma radiation methods in characterizing horizontal and vertical multiphase flow. In Offshore Technology Conference, pp. 1–11Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brito R, Pereyra E, Sarica C (2014) Experimental study to characterize slug flow for medium oil viscosities in horizontal pipes. In 9th North American Conference on Multiphase Technology, pp. 403–417Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beggs DH, Brill JP (1973) A study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes. J Pet Technol 25(5):607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khaledi H, Smith IE, Unander TE, Nossen J (2014) Investigation of two-phase flow pattern, liquid holdup and pressure drop in viscous oil–gas flow. Int J Multiphase Flow 67:37–51MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pan J (2010) Gas entrainment in two-phase gas-liquid slug flow. PhD Thesis, Imperial College LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu L, Hu B, Langsholt M, Yang Z (2014) Characteristics of gas-viscous oil flows in a 0.1 M diameter pipeline measured by an X-ray CT system. In 9th North American Conference on Multiphase TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bestion D (1990) The physical closure laws in the CATHARE code. Nucl Eng Des 124(3):229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Choi J, Pereyra E, Sarica C, Park C, Kang J (2012) An efficient drift-flux closure relationship to estimate liquid holdups of gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipes. Energies 5(12):5294–5306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zuber N, Findlay JA (1965) Average volumetric concentration in two-phase flow systems. J Heat Transf 87(4):453–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Archibong-Eso A, Van W, Baba Y, Kanshio S, Yeung H (2015) Viscous liquid-gas flow in horizontal pipelines: Experiments and multiphase flow simulator assessment. In BHR Group - 17th International Conference on Multiphase Technology 2015Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Colmenares J, Ortega P, Padrino J, Trallero JLL (2001) Slug flow model for the prediction of pressure drop for high viscosity oils in a horizontal pipeline. In Proceedings of SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kora C, Sarica C, Zhang H, Al-Sarkhi A, Al-Safran E (2011) Effects of high oil viscosity on slug liquid holdup in horizontal pipes. In Canadian Unconventional Resources ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gomez L, Shoham O, Taitel Y (Mar. 2000) Prediction of slug liquid holdup: horizontal to upward vertical flow. Int J Multiphase Flow 26(3):517–521CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Al-Safran E (2009) Prediction of slug liquid holdup in horizontal pipes. J Energy Resour Technol 131(2):23001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gregory GA, Nicholson MK, Aziz K (1978) Correlation of the liquid volume fraction in the slug for horizontal gas-liquid slug flow. Int J Multiphase Flow 4(1):33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Malnes D (1983) Slug flow in vertical, horizontal and inclined pipes. Institute for Energy Technology, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abdul-Majeed GH (2000) Liquid slug holdup in horizontal and slightly inclined two-phase slug flow. J Pet Sci Eng 27(1–2):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yahaya D. Baba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aliyu M. Aliyu
    • 3
  • Archibong-Eso Archibong
    • 1
    • 3
  • Almabrok A. Almabrok
    • 4
  • A. I. Igbafe
    • 2
  1. 1.Oil and Gas Engineering CentreCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  2. 2.Chemical/Petroleum Engineering DepartmentAfe Babalola UniversityAdo-EkitiNigeria
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringPusan National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Petroleum EngineeringFaculty of EngineeringSirteLibya

Personalised recommendations