Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 9, pp 2933–2949 | Cite as

Experimental data and numerical predictions of a single-phase flow in a batch square stirred tank reactor with a rotating cylinder agitator

  • I. A. Escamilla-Ruíz
  • F. Z. Sierra-EspinosaEmail author
  • J. C. García
  • A. Valera-Medina
  • F. Carrillo


Single-phase flows in stirred tank reactors have useful characteristics for a wide number of industrial applications. Usually, reactors are cylindrical vessels and complex impeller designs, which are often highly energy consuming and produce complicated flow patterns. Therefore, a novel configuration consisting of a square stirred tank reactor is proposed in this study with potential advantages over conventional reactors. In the present work hydrodynamics and turbulence have been studied for a single-phase flow in steady state operating in batch condition. The flow was induced by drag from a rotating cylinder with two diameters. The effects of drag from the stirrer as well as geometrical parameters of the system on the hydrodynamic behavior were investigated using Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) and non-intrusive Laser Doppler Anemometry, (LDA). Data obtained from LDA measurements were used for the validation of the CFD simulations, and to detecting the macro-instabilities inside the tank, based on the time series analysis for three rotational speeds N = 180, 1000 and 2000 rpm. The numerical results revealed the formation of flow patterns and macro-vortex structures in the upper part of the tank as consequence of the Reynolds number and the stream discharge emanated from the cylindrical stirrer. Moreover, increasing the cylinder diameter has an impact on the number of recirculation loops as well as the energy consumption of the entire system showing better performance in the presence of turbulent flows.


Vortex Computational Fluid Dynamics Stir Tank Reactor Discharge Stream Laser Doppler Anemometry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Clearance between the cylinder to the tank bottom, (m)


Diameter of rotating cylinder, (m)


Gap, \(d = \left( {\frac{{T_{s} - D}}{2}} \right)\), (m)


Macro-instability frequency


Cylinder rotational frequency


Liquid height, (m)


Cylinder rotational speed, (rpm)


Power number, \(N_{p} = \frac{P}{{\rho N^{3} D^{5} }}\)


Power consumption, P = 2πNT, (W)


Rotating cylinder radius, (m)


Radial coordinate, (m)


Rotational Reynolds number, \(Re = \left( {\frac{{\rho u_{s} d}}{\mu }} \right)\)


Strouhal number, \(St = \left( {\frac{{f_{MI} }}{{f_{N} }}} \right)\)


Torque, (\({\text{N m}}\))


Side wall length of tank, (m)


Taylor number, Ta = Re 2(η −1 − 1)


Critical Taylor number


Velocity at the surface of rotating cylinder, (\({\text{m s}}^{ - 1}\))


Mean value of tangential velocity component, (\({\text{m s}}^{ - 1}\))


Axial coordinate, (m)


Molecular viscosity, (\({\text{kg m}}^{ - 1} {\text{s}}^{ - 1}\))


Turbulent viscosity, (\({\text{kg m}}^{ - 1} {\text{s}}^{ - 1}\))


Density, (\({\text{kg m}}^{ - 3}\))


Aspect ratio, Γ = H/d


Radii ratio, \(\eta = \left( {\frac{D}{{T_{s} }}} \right)\)



We gratefully acknowledge the loan of the TSI Laser Doppler Anemometer from the ESPRC Engineering Instrument Pool (req. 4126). Authors thank the funds from the National Council for Science and Technology CONACYT, under Grant Number: CB2008-102167. Mr. I.A. Escamilla-Ruiz would gratefully acknowledge the support given by CONACYT through its International Exchange Fund to visit and participate in experiments and analyses at Cardiff University, United Kingdom. All the authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Malcolm Seaborn.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. A. Escamilla-Ruíz
    • 1
  • F. Z. Sierra-Espinosa
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. C. García
    • 1
  • A. Valera-Medina
    • 2
  • F. Carrillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp)Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MorelosCuernavacaMexico
  2. 2.Cardiff School of EngineeringCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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