Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 1277–1288 | Cite as

Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

  • Osman İsmail
  • Aysel Kantürk FigenEmail author
  • Sabriye Pişkin
Original

Abstract

Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10−10 and 1.2 × 10−10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

Keywords

Root Mean Square Error Moisture Diffusivity Green Bean Moisture Ratio Logarithmic Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

Mt

Moisture content at a specific time (g water/g dry matter)

Ww

Water content (g water)

Wdm

Dry weight of product

dM/dt

Drying rate (g water/g dry matter × min),

Mt+dt

Moisture content at t + dt (g water/g dry matter)

dt

Time range

MR

Moisture ratio

Mo

Initial moisture content at t = 0 (g water/g dry matter)

Me

Equilibrium moisture content (g water/g dry matter)

Deff

Effective moisture diffusivity (m2/s)

“L”

Lightness

“a”

Greenness

“b”

Yellowness

RMSE

Root mean square error

χ2

Reduced Chi square

R2

Coefficient of determination

MRexp,i

Experimental dimensionless moisture ratios

MRpre,i

Predicted dimensionless moisture ratios

N

Number of observations

z

Number of constants

a, b, k, n

Constants in models

References

  1. 1.
    Broughton WJ, Hernández G, Blair M, Beebe S, Gepts P, Vanderleyden J (2003) Beans (Phaseolus spp.)—model food legumes. Plant Soil 252:55–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    FAO (2012) FaoStat: agriculture data. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID = 567#ancor (accessed August 04, 2014)
  3. 3.
    Basunia MA, Abe T (2001) Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of rough rice under natural convection. J Food Eng 47:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adedeji AA, Gachovska TK, Ngadi MO, Raghavan GSV (2008) Effect of pretreatments on drying characteristics of Okra. Dry Technol 26:1251–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tunde-Akintunde TY, Ogunlakin GO (2013) Mathematical modeling of drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin. J Food Sci Technol 50:705–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doymaz I (2010) Effect of citric acid and blanching pre-treatments on drying and rehydration of Amasya red apples. Food Bioprod Process 88:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doymaz I (2005) Sun drying of figs: an experimental study. J Food Eng 71:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hossain MA, Woods JL, Bala BK (2005) Optimisation of solar tunnel drier for drying of chilli without color loss. Renew Energy 30:729–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akpınar EK, Biçer Y (2008) Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying process of long green pepper in solar dryer and under open sun. Energy Convers Manag 49:1367–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akpınar EK (2010) Drying of mint leaves in a solar dryer and under open sun: modelling, performance analyses. Energy Convers Manag 51:2407–2418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tunde Akintunde TY (2011) Mathematical modeling of sun and solar drying of chilli pepper. Renew Energy 36:2139–2145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Doymaz I (2011) Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy. Chem Ind Chem Eng 17:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yaldız O, Ertekin C (2001) Thin layer solar drying of some vegetables. Drying Technol 19(3–4):583–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Midilli A, Küçük H, Yapar Z (2002) A new model for single-layer drying. Dry Technol: Int J 20:1503–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menges HO, Ertekin C (2006) Thin layer drying model for treated and untreated Stanley plums. Energy Convers Manag 47:2337–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Doymaz I (2012) Evaluation of some thin-layer drying models of persimmon slices (Diospyros kaki L.). Energ Convers Manag 56:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    AOAC (1990) Official method of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. AOAC, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Demirhan E, Özbek B (2010) Drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity of purslane undergoing microwave heat treatment. Korean J Chem Eng 27:1377–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mulet A, Berna A, Borras M, Pinaga F (1987) Effect of air flow rate on carrot drying. Dry Technol 5:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruin S, Luiben KCAM (1980) Drying of food materials: a review of recent developments. In: Mujumdar AS (ed) Advances in drying, vol 1. Hemisphere Publishing Corp, New York, pp 155–215Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crank J (1975) Mathematics of diffusion, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, LondonzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parlak N (2015) Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger (zingiber officinale) slices. Heat Mass Transf 51:1085–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Özbek B, Dadali G (2007) Thin-layer drying characteristics and modelling of mint leaves undergoing microwave treatment. J Food Eng 83:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belghith A, Azzouz S, ElCafsi A (2015) Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato. Heat Mass Transf. doi: 10.1007/s00231-015-1560-0 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Torki-Harchegani M, Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M, Ghanbarian D, Sadeghi M, Tohidi M (2015) Dehydration characteristics and mathematical modelling of lemon slices drying undergoing oven treatment. Heat Mass Transf. doi: 10.1007/s00231-015-1546-y Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sharada S (2013) Mathematical models for drying behaviour of green beans. Int J Eng Res Appl 3:845–851Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Senadeera WW, Bhandari BR, Young G, Wijesinghe B (2003) Influence of shapes of selected vegetable materials on drying kinetics during fluidized bed drying. J Food Eng 58:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jadhav DB, Visavale GL, Sutar PP, Annapure US, Thorat BN (2010) Solar cabinet drying of bitter gourd:optimization of pretreatments and quality evaluation. Int J Food Eng. doi: 10.2202/1556-3758.1503 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kocabiyik H, Tezer D (2009) Drying of carrot slices using infrared radiation. Int J Food Sci Technol 44:953–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Evin D (2012) Thin layer drying kinetics of Gundelia tournefortii L. Food Bioprod Process 90:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fellows P (2000) Food processing technology: principles and practice, 2nd edn. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mongpraneet S, Abe T, Tsurusaki T (2002) Far infrared-vacuum and—convection drying of welsh onion. ASABE 45:1529–1535Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Natharanakule A, Kraiwanichkul W, Soponronnarit S (2007) Comparative study of different combined superheated-steam drying techniques for chicken meat. J Food Eng 80:1023–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Madamba PS, Driscoll RH, Buckle KA (1996) The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices. J Food Eng 29:75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Erbay Z, Icier F (2010) A review of thin layer drying of foods: theory, modeling and experimental results. Crit Rev Food Sci 50:441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Doymaz I (2005) Drying behaviour of green beans. J Food Eng 69:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rossello´ C, Simal S, San-Juan N, Mulet A (1997) Nonisotropic mass transfer model for green bean drying. J Agr Food Chem 45:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lewis WK (1921) The rate of drying of solid materials. Ind Eng C 13:427–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Demiray E, Tulek Y (2014) Drying characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer. Heat Mass Transf 50:779–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mitra J, Shrivastava SL, Rao PS (2011) Vacuum dehydration kinetics of onion slices. Food Bioprod Process 89:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Markowski M, Stankiewicz I, Zapotoczny P, Borowska J (2006) Effect of variety on drying characteristics and selected quality attributes of dried carrots. Dry Technol 24:1011–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kayisoglu S, Ertekin C (2011) Vacuum drying kinetics of Barbunya bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. elipticus Mart.). Philippine Agric Sci 94(3):285–291Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Akpınar EK, Bicer Y (2007) Modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of sour cherry in a solar dryer and under open sun. J Sci Ind Res 66:764–771Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shoughy MI, Abdraboh AF, El-Nagar AB (2014) Drying behaviors of water hyacinth by multi-tray solar dryer. Egypt J Agric Res 92(1):273–286Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Okos MR, Campanella O, Narsimhan G, Singh RK, Weitnauer AC (2007) Food Dehydration. In: Heldman DR, Lund DB (eds) Handbook of food engineering, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, FL, pp 601–744Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Somkiat P, Paveena P, Somchart S (2004) Effective diffusivity and kinetics of urease inactivation and color change during processing of soybeans with superheated-steam fluidized bed. Dry Technol 22:2095–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rudra SG, Singh H, Sf Basu, Shivhare US (2008) Enthalpy entropy compensation during thermal degradation of chlorophyll in mint and coriander puree. J Food Eng 86:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Baisier WM, Labuza TP (1990) Maillard browning kinetics in a liquid model system. J Agric Food Chem 40:707–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buchaillot A, Caffin N, Bhandari B (2009) Drying of lemon myrtle (Backhousia Citriodora) leaves: retention of volatiles colour. Dry Technol 27:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    İsmail O, Kantürk Figen A, Pişkin S (2015) Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Heat Mass Transf 51:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maldonado S, Arnau E, Bertuzzi MA (2010) Effect of temperature and pretreatment on water diffusion during rehydration of dehydrated mangoes. J Food Eng 96:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kara C, Doymaz I (2015) Effective moisture diffusivity determination and mathematical modelling of drying curves of apple pomace. Heat Mass Transf 51:983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Verma LR, Bucklin RA, Endan JB, Wratten FT (1985) Effects of drying air parameters on rice drying models. Trans ASAE 28:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang CY, Singh RP (1978) Use of variable equilibrium moisture content in modelling rice drying. ASAE, Paper No. 78–6505, ASAE, St. JosephGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kingsly RP, Goyal RK, Manikantan MR, Ilyas SM (2007) Effects of pretreatments and drying air temperature on drying behavior of peach slice. Int J Food Sci Technol 42:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osman İsmail
    • 1
  • Aysel Kantürk Figen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sabriye Pişkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringYıldız Technical UniversityİstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations