Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink


Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re < 1800. Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

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Surface area (m2)

Cp :

Specific heat (J/kg K)

Dh :

Hydraulic diameter (m)


Fanning friction factor


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

Hch :

Height of microchannel (µm)

Htc :

Distance from thermocouple to the base of microchannel (mm)


Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

Lch :

Microchannel length (mm)


Mass flow rate (g/s)


Nusselt number


solid particle shape factor


Number of microchannel


Prandtl number

Δpnet :

Net pressure drop along microchannels (bar)

Δpmeasured :

Total pressure drop (bar)

Δpc1, Δpc2 :

Contraction pressure loss (bar)

Δpe1, Δpe2 :

Expansion pressure loss (bar)

qf :

Heat transfer rate remove by fluid (W)

conv. :

Heat flux through heat sink base area by convection mechanism (W/m2)


Reynolds number


Temperature (°C)


Average fluid velocity (m/s)

uin :

Fluid inlet velocity (m/s)

uout :

Fluid outlet velocity (m/s)

wch :

Microchannel width (µm)

wfin :

Fin width (µm)


Axial distance (mm)


Fin efficiency






Volumetric fraction of nanoparticles






Base fluid












Solid particles


Solid metal for heat sink




Local condition


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Correspondence to S. M. Peyghambarzadeh.

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Chabi, A.R., Zarrinabadi, S., Peyghambarzadeh, S.M. et al. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink. Heat Mass Transfer 53, 661–671 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-016-1851-0

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  • Heat Transfer Coefficient
  • Nusselt Number
  • Friction Factor
  • Base Fluid
  • Heat Transfer Enhancement