Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 52, Issue 12, pp 2769–2780 | Cite as

Boiling heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids on a smooth surface with agitation

  • Xin Kong
  • Baojin Qi
  • Jinjia WeiEmail author
  • Wei Li
  • Jie Ding
  • Yonghai Zhang


The pool boiling heat transfer performance on a smooth silicon chip surface with agitation was experimentally investigated in this study. The nanofluids (Ag/alcohol) of 0.02 % volume concentration and ethyl alcohol with purification over 99.9 % were the two contrast working fluids. For each group, subcoolings of 40, 50 and 60 K were conducted under atmospheric pressure. To enhance the heat transfer performance, an agitating device was fixed above the top of the chip. The experimental results indicated that nanofluids could enhance the heat transfer performance especially in the nucleate boiling region. The heat transfer coefficient was significantly increased with nanofluids, while the critical heat flux (CHF) was nearly not changed. In the agitation Reynolds number of 20,300, the heat transfer performance of nanofluids was significantly enhanced in the convection region, and the CHF was increased by more than 25 % for all groups. This boiling phenomenon was observed for both nanofluids and alcohol groups. Meanwhile, the boiling curves of different liquid subcoolings in the nucleate region were quite similar to each other under agitation.


Heat Transfer Coefficient Critical Heat Flux Heat Transfer Performance Boiling Heat Transfer Chip Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Heat transfer coefficient, [W/(m2 K)]


Rotational speed (rad/s)


Heat flux (W/cm2)


Critical heat flux (W/cm2)


Reynolds number


Temperature of bulk liquid (K)


Saturation temperature (K)


Wall temperature (K)

Greek symbols

\(\Delta T_{\text{sat}}\)

Wall superheat = T w − T sat (K)

\(\Delta T_{\text{sub}}\)

Liquid subcooling = T sat − T b (K)


Viscosity coefficient (N s/m2)


Liquid density (kg/m3)






This work is supported by the project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51225601).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Kong
    • 1
  • Baojin Qi
    • 1
  • Jinjia Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei Li
    • 2
  • Jie Ding
    • 1
  • Yonghai Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Thermal Science and Power SystemsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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