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Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 52, Issue 12, pp 2621–2634 | Cite as

A new optimization approach for shell and tube heat exchangers by using electromagnetism-like algorithm (EM)

  • Azher M. AbedEmail author
  • Issa Ahmed Abed
  • Hasan Sh. Majdi
  • Ali Najah Al-Shamani
  • K. Sopian
Original

Abstract

This study proposes a new procedure for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers. The electromagnetism-like algorithm is applied to save on heat exchanger capital cost and designing a compact, high performance heat exchanger with effective use of the allowable pressure drop (cost of the pump). An optimization algorithm is then utilized to determine the optimal values of both geometric design parameters and maximum allowable pressure drop by pursuing the minimization of a total cost function. A computer code is developed for the optimal shell and tube heat exchangers. Different test cases are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and ability of the proposed algorithm. Results are also compared with those obtained by other approaches available in the literature. The comparisons indicate that a proposed design procedure can be successfully applied in the optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers. In particular, in the examined cases a reduction of total costs up to 30, 29, and 56.15 % compared with the original design and up to 18, 5.5 and 7.4 % compared with other approaches for case study 1, 2 and 3 respectively, are observed. In this work, economic optimization resulting from the proposed design procedure are relevant especially when the size/volume is critical for high performance and compact unit, moderate volume and cost are needed.

Keywords

Particle Swarm Optimization Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Area Shell Side 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

a1

Numerical constant

a2

Numerical constant

a3

Numerical constant

as

Cross section area normal to flow direction (m2)

AS

Heat transfer surface area (m2)

B

Baffles spacing (m)

Cl

Clearance (m)

Cp

Specific heat (kJ/kg K)

Ci

Capital investment (€)

CE

Energy cost (€/kW h)

Co

Annual operating cost (€/year)

CoD

Total discounted operating cost (€)

Ctot

Total annual cost (€)

d

Tube diameter (m)

De

Equivalent diameter (m)

Ds

Shell diameter (m)

f

Friction factor

F

Correction factor

h

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

H

Annual operating time (h/year)

i

Annual discount rate (%)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

K1

Numerical constant

L

Tube length (m)

m

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

n

Number of tubes passages

n1

Numerical constant

ny

Equipment life (year)

Nt

Number of tubes

P

Pumping power (W)

p

Numerical constant

Pr

Prandtl number

Pt

Tube pitch (m)

PR

Pitch ratio, PR = 1.25 do (m)

Q

Heat duty (W)

Re

Reynolds number

Rf

Fouling resistance (m2 K/W)

T

Temperature (K)

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

vt

Fluid velocity (m/s)

Greek symbols

\(\Delta P\)

Pressure drop (Pa)

\(\Delta T_{LM}\)

Logarithmic mean temperature difference (°C)

π

Numerical constant

µ

Dynamic viscosity (pa s)

ν

Kinematic viscosity (m

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

H

Overall pumping efficiency

Subscripts

e

Equivalent

i

Inlet

o

Outlet

s

Belonging to shell

t

Belonging to tube

w

Tube wall

lm

Logarithmic mean

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azher M. Abed
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Issa Ahmed Abed
    • 3
  • Hasan Sh. Majdi
    • 2
  • Ali Najah Al-Shamani
    • 1
  • K. Sopian
    • 1
  1. 1.Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI)Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Air Conditioning and RefrigerationAl-Mustaqbal University CollegeBabylonIraq
  3. 3.Engineering Technical College BasrahSouthern Technical UniversityBasrahIraq

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