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Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size


Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air–biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

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Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester


Ultra low sulfur diesel


Nozzle opening pressure




Blend of 25 % CIME with ULSD


Blend of 50 % CIME with ULSD


Blend of 75 % CIME with ULSD


100 % CIME


Nozzle hole


Compression ignition


Direct injection


Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake thermal efficiency


Carbon monoxide

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide


Oxides of nitrogen


Hartridge smoke unit


Smoke density




Parts per million


Heat release rate


Pressure (bar)


Degree crank angle


Top dead center


Before top dead center








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Vairamuthu, G., Sundarapandian, S. & Thangagiri, B. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size. Heat Mass Transfer 52, 1005–1013 (2016).

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  • Diesel Engine
  • Specific Fuel Consumption
  • Injector Nozzle
  • Brake Thermal Efficiency
  • Nozzle Hole