Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 477–485 | Cite as

Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

  • Fatemeh Nikkhou
  • Peyman Keshavarz
  • Shahab Ayatollahi
  • Iman Raoofi Jahromi
  • Ali Zolghadr
Original

Abstract

CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2–oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2–normal heptane and CO2–normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313–393 K and 1.7–8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2–normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

Keywords

Mass Transfer Process Interfacial Resistance Mass Transfer Model Pendant Drop High Pressure Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

rn

Inner radius of needle

t

Time

φ

Physical domain

Bim

Boundaries between liquid and impermeable surfaces

Bint

Boundaries between liquid and gas

c

Gas concentration in liquid phase

D

Diffusion coefficient

nr

Direction cosine

nz

Direction cosine

k

Interface mass transfer coefficient

Ceq

Equilibrium concentration of gas in liquid

C

Dimensionless gas concentration

R

Radial coordinate

Z

Axial coordinate

τ

Dimensionless time

kD

Mass transfer Biot number

ϴ

Computational domain

V

Solvent molar volume

β

Coefficient

VD

Molar volume of solvent when diffusion approaches zero

E

Objective function

IFTexp

Experimental interfacial tension

IFTcal

Calculated interfacial tension

T

Absolute temperature

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the research council of the Shiraz University for financial supports and providing the laboratory and the computational facilities required by the research. Financial supports from Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Center of the College of Engineering are greatly acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Civan F, Rasmussen ML (2001) Accurate measurement of gas diffusivity in oil and brine under reservoir conditions. In: SPE mid continent operations symposium, Oklahoma City, OKGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Civan F, Rasmussen ML (2002) Improved measurement of gas diffusivity for miscible gas flooding under nonequilibrium vs. equilibrium conditions. In: SPE/DOE improved oil recovery symposium, Tulsa, OKGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Etminan SR, Pooladi-Darvish M, Maini B, Chen ZJ (2010) Mass diffusion parameters in presence of interface resistance in gas–bitumen systems. In: Canadian unconventional resources and international petroleum conferenceGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saboorian Jooybari H (2012) A novel methodology for simultaneous estimation of gas diffusivity and solubility in bitumens and heavy oils. In: SPE heavy oil conference CanadaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Treybal RE (1980) Mass-transfer operations, vol 3. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang Y, Hyndman C, Maini B (2000) Measurement of gas diffusivity in heavy oils. J Pet Sci Eng 25(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Upreti SR, Mehrotra AK (2000) Experimental measurement of gas diffusivity in bitumen: results for carbon dioxide. Ind Eng Chem Res 39(4):1080–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Etminan SR, Maini BB, Chen Z, Hassanzadeh H (2010) Constant–pressure technique for gas diffusivity and solubility measurements in heavy oil and bitumen. Energy Fuels 24(1):533–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reamer H, Opfell J, Sage B (1956) Diffusion coefficients in hydrocarbon systems methane-decane-methane in liquid phase-methane-decane-methane in liquid phase. Ind Eng Chem 48(2):275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walas SM (1991) Modeling with differential equations in chemical engineering. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Civan F, Rasmussen M (2006) Determination of gas diffusion and interface–mass transfer coefficients for quiescent reservoir liquids. SPE J 11(1):71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Riazi MR (1996) A new method for experimental measurement of diffusion coefficients in reservoir fluids. J Pet Sci Eng 14(3):235–250CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Policarpo N (2012) The study of mass transfer between phases in gas and organic drilling fluid mixtures. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibitionGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tharanivasan AK, Yang C, Gu Y (2004) Comparison of three different interface mass transfer models used in the experimental measurement of solvent diffusivity in heavy oil. J Pet Sci Eng 44(3):269–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang C, Gu Y (2005) New experimental method for measuring gas diffusivity in heavy oil by the dynamic pendant drop volume analysis (DPDVA). Ind Eng Chem Res 44(12):4474–4483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang C, Gu Y (2005) A novel experimental technique for studying solvent mass transfer and oil swelling effect in the vapour extraction (VAPEX) process. In: Canadian international petroleum conferenceGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang D, Gu Y (2008) Determination of diffusion coefficients and interface mass-transfer coefficients of the crude oil−CO2 system by analysis of the dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tensions. Ind Eng Chem Res 47(15):5447–5455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang D, Gu Y (2006) A new experimental technique for studying gas mass transfer in the crude oil by analysis of the measured dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tensions. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibitionGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang D, Tontiwachwuthikul P, Gu Y (2005) Interfacial tensions of the crude oil + reservoir brine + CO2 systems at pressures up to 31 MPA and temperatures of 27 C and 58 C. J Chem Eng Data 50(4):1242–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yang D, Gu Y (2005) Interfacial interactions between crude oil and CO2 under reservoir conditions. Pet Sci Technol 23(9–10):1099–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ayirala SC, Rao DN (2006) A new mechanistic Parachor model to predict dynamic interfacial tension and miscibility in multicomponent hydrocarbon systems. J Colloid Interface Sci 299(1):321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ayirala SC, Rao DN (2006) Solubility, miscibility and their relation to interfacial tension in ternary liquid systems. Fluid Phase Equilib 249(1):82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nobakht M, Moghadam S, Gu Y (2008) Mutual interactions between crude oil and CO2 under different pressures. Fluid Phase Equilib 265(1):94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zolghadr A, Escrochi M, Ayatollahi S (2013) Temperature and composition effect on CO2 miscibility by interfacial tension measurement. J Chem Eng Data 58(5):1168–117525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zolghadr A, Riazi M, Escrochi M, Ayatollahi S (2013) Investigating the effects of temperature, pressure, and paraffin groups on the n2 miscibility in hydrocarbon liquids using interfacial tension measurement method. Ind Eng Chem Res 52(29):9851–9857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jůza J (1997) The pendant drop method of surface tension measurement: equation interpolating the shape factor tables for several selected planes. Czech J Phys 47(3):351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Drelich J, Fang Ch, White CL (2002) Measurement of interfacial tension in fluid–fluid systems. In: Hubbard AT (ed) Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp 3152–3166 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang C, Gu Y (2006) Diffusion coefficients and oil swelling factors of carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, and their mixtures in heavy oil. Fluid Phase Equilib 243(1):64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saatdjian E, Janna W (2001) Transport phenomena: equations and numerical solutions. Appl Mech Rev 54:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matthews MA, Rodden JB, Akgerman A (1987) High-temperature diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in liquid n-heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane. J Chem Eng Data 32(3):319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saad H, Gulari E (1984) Diffusion of carbon dioxide in heptane. J Phys Chem 88(1):136–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Perry RH, Green DW, Maloney JO (2008) Perry’s chemical engineers’ handbook, vol 7. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dopierala K, Javadi A, Krägel J, Schano K-H, Kalogianni E, Leser M, Miller R (2011) Dynamic interfacial tensions of dietary oils. Colloids Surf A 382(1):261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nobakht M, Moghadam S, Gu Y (2008) Determination of CO2 minimum miscibility pressure from measured and predicted equilibrium interfacial tensions. Ind Eng Chem Res 47(22):8918–8925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grogan A, Pinczewski V, Ruskauff G, Orr FM (1988) Diffusion of CO2 at reservoir conditions: models and measurements. SPE Reserv Eng 3(1):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chaodong Y, Yongan G (2003) A new method for measuring solvent diffusivity in heavy oil by dynamic pendant drop shape analysis (DPDSA). In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibitionGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zamanian E, Hemmati M, Beiranvand MS (2012) Determination of gas-diffusion and interface–mass-transfer coefficients in fracture–heavy oil saturated porous matrix system. Nafta 63(11–12):351–358Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatemeh Nikkhou
    • 1
  • Peyman Keshavarz
    • 1
  • Shahab Ayatollahi
    • 1
  • Iman Raoofi Jahromi
    • 2
  • Ali Zolghadr
    • 1
  1. 1.Enhanced Oil Recovery Research (EOR) Center, School of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations