Heat transfer and fluid flow analysis of artificially roughened ducts having rib and groove roughness
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Artificially roughness is one of the well known methods of enhancing heat transfer from the heat transfer surface in the form of repeated ribs, grooves or combination of ribs and groove (compound turbulators). The artificial roughness produced on the heat transferring surface is used in cooling of gas turbine blades, nuclear reactor, solar air heating systems etc. Solar air heaters have wide applications in low to moderate temperature range, namely, drying of foods, agricultural crops, seasoning of wood and space heating etc. Solar air heaters have low value of convective heat transfer coefficient between the working fluid (air) and the heat transferring surface, due to the formation of thin laminar viscous sub-layer on its surface. The heat transfer from the surface can be increased by breaking this laminar viscous sub layer. Hence, in the present work compound turbulators in the form of integral wedge shaped ribs with grooves are used on the heat transfer surface, to study its effect on the heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number) and friction factor in the range of Reynolds number 3,000–18,000. The roughness produced on the absorber plate forms the wetted side of upper broad wall of the rectangular duct of solar air heater. The relative groove position (g/p) was varied from 0.4 to 0.8 and the wedge angle (Φ) was varied from 10° to 25°, relative roughness pitch (p/e) and relative roughness height (e/D) was maintained as 8.0 and 0.033 respectively. The aspect ratio of the rectangular duct was maintained as 8. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the artificially roughened ducts were determined experimentally and the corresponding values were compared with that of smooth surface duct. It is observed that wedge-groove roughened surface shows more enhancement in heat transfer compared to only rib roughened surface arrangement. The investigation revealed that Nusselt number increases 1.5–3 times, while the friction factor increases two to three folds that of the smooth surface duct in the range of operating parameters. It is also observed that in rib–groove roughness arrangement with relative groove position of 0.65 shows the maximum enhancement in the heat transfer compared to the other rib-groove roughness arrangements. Statistical correlations for the Nusselt number and friction factor have been developed by the regression method in terms of the operating and roughness parameters. A program was also developed in MATLAB for the calculation of thermal efficiency and thermal effectiveness. It was observed that the thermal efficiency is more for wedge angle of 15° and relative groove position of 0.65 and its value ranges from 42 to 73 %. The uncertainties in the measurements due to various instruments for the Reynolds number, Nusselt number, and friction factor have been estimated as ±3.8, ±4.54 and ±7.6 % respectively in the range of investigation made.
KeywordsHeat Transfer Nusselt Number Friction Factor Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Wedge Angle
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