The effects of casting speed on steel continuous casting process


A three dimensional simulation of molten steel flow, heat transfer and solidification in mold and “secondary cooling zone” of Continuous Casting machine was performed with consideration of standard k−ε model. For this purpose, computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT was utilized. From the simulation standpoint, the main distinction between this work and preceding ones is that, the phase change process (solidification) and flow (turbulent in mold section and laminar in secondary cooling zone) have been coupled and solved jointly instead of dividing it into “transient heat conduction” and “steady fluid flow” that can lead to more realistic simulation. Determining the appropriate boundary conditions in secondary cooling zone is very complicated because of various forms of heat transfer involved, including natural and forced convection and simultaneous radiation heat transfer. The main objective of this work is to have better understanding of heat transfer and solidification in the continuous casting process. Also, effects of casting speed on heat flux and shell thickness and role of radiation in total heat transfer is discussed.

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C1, C2, C3:


c p :

Specific heat at constant pressure [J/(kg.K)]

g :

Magnitude of gravity [m/s2]

h :

Sensible enthalpy

h ref :

Reference enthalpy

h ext :

Convection coefficient

H :


K :

Conductivity [W/(K.m)]

L :

Latent heat of the material [J/kg]

ΔH :

Latent heat [J/kg]

Q w :

Water flow rate in spray zone [L/(m2.K)]

S :

Sink Term

T :

Temperature [K]

T solidus :

Temperature [K]

T liquidus :

Temperature [K]

T ref :

Reference temperature [K]

T surface :

Surface temperature [K]

T ambient :

Ambient temperature [K]

T spray :

Temperature of the spray cooling [C]

h nat :

Natural convection heat-transfer coefficient [W/(m2.K)]

h spray :

Spray cooling heat-transfer coefficient [W/(m2.K)]

T ext :

Cooling water temperature [K]

u :

Velocity component [m/s]

\( \overrightarrow {\upsilon } \) :

Fluid velocity [m/s]

\( \overrightarrow {{\upsilon_{p} }} \) :

Pull velocity [m/s]

P :

Pressure field [N/m2]

y + :

Non-dimensional cell size at the wall

y :

Distance from the wall


Machine dependent calibration factor


Liquid fraction


Density [kg/m3]

μo :

Laminar viscosity [kg/(m.s)]

μ t :

Turbulence viscosity [kg/(m.s)]

k :

Transport of turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2]


Dissipation rate of kinetic energy [m2/s3]

ε R :

Surface Emissivity


Stefan-Boltzmann coefficient [W/(m2.K4)]


Turbulent parameter that is solved

i, j:

Coordinate direction indices, which when repeated in a term, imply the summation of all three possible terms


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The authors would like to express their gratitude to the supporters of this work especially H. Ajam and S. Seyyedy.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Sadat.

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Sadat, M., Honarvar Gheysari, A. & Sadat, S. The effects of casting speed on steel continuous casting process. Heat Mass Transfer 47, 1601–1609 (2011).

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  • Heat Transfer
  • Continuous Casting
  • Mushy Zone
  • Molten Steel
  • Casting Speed