Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 495–499 | Cite as

Experimental investigation on flow characteristics in a narrow annulus

  • Guangyao LuEmail author
  • Jing Wang


Experiments are carried out to investigate the flow characteristics with/without heat exchange in a narrow annulus. In the experiments, directions of flow include horizontal, upstream and downstream flow. Experimental results show that the flow characteristics of water through the narrow annulus are different from those in normal tubes. Flow directions have little influences on the flow friction for the fluid flow in the narrow annulus with/without heat exchange. The flow characteristics in the narrow annulus have relations to the liquid temperature difference at the inlet and outlet of the annulus. Their influences on the flow characteristics are relatively obvious in the laminar flow area. When the Reynolds number is larger than 104, there are little differences between the flow friction factors with/without heat exchange. It is also found that the asymmetrical flow can make the friction factor increase, whereas the symmetrical flow can reduce the flow friction. In the experiments, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow is carefully observed. In the narrow annulus, the flow transition is initiated earlier than that in normal pipes at a Reynolds number range from 1,100 to 1,500, which is different from the heat transfer transition. The results are gained to provide bases for the further investigations on the two-phase flow in narrow annuli.


Reynolds Number Heat Exchange Friction Factor Heat Transfer Characteristic Reynolds Number Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


diameter of the pipe (m)


hydraulic diameter of annulus (m)


flow friction factor


length of measuring pressure drop (m)


frictional pressure drop (Pa)


Reynolds number


inner radius of the annulus (m)


outer radius of the annulus (m)


time (s)


liquid velocity (m/s)

Greek symbols


dynamic viscosity of the fluid (kg/m s)


density (kg/m3)



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50476015).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina

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