Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 41, Issue 9, pp 824–833 | Cite as

Vortex shedding around a heated square cylinder under the influence of buoyancy

  • S. BhattacharyyaEmail author
  • S. Mahapatra


The influence of buoyancy on vortex shedding and heat transfer from a cylinder of square cross-section exposed to a horizontal stream has been studied.Unsteady Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved numerically using a control volume approach. Flow field has been analysed for a wide range of Reynolds number (which is based on the cross-sectional height of the cylinder) and Grashof number with Richardson number between 0 to 1. Our results show that the centerline symmetry of the wake is lost and the cylinder experiences a downwards lift when the buoyancy effect is considered. Vortex shedding suppression doesn’t occur in the present case in which the cylinder is exposed to a horizontal cross-flow. Heat transfer from the cylinder increases due to increase in Reynolds number and Grashof number.


Vortex Heat Transfer Reynolds Number Shear Layer Strouhal Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Lift coefficient


Pressure coefficient


Specific heat at constant pressure

\(\overline {C_{\text {L}}} \)

Time-averaged lift coefficient

\(\overline {C_{\text{D}}} \)

Time-averaged drag coefficient

\(\overline {C_{\text {p}}} \)

Time-averaged pressure coefficient


Gravitational acceleration


Grashof number =gβ (Tw - T_0)H32


Height of the cylinder


Local Nusselt number


Surface average heat transfer at each face of the cylinder


Total heat transfer from the cylinder

\(\overline {{\text {Nu}}} \)

Time-average local Nusselt number on the surface of the cylinder

\(\overline {{\text{Nu}}_{{\text {total}}}} \)

Total mean Nusselt number on the cylinder


Dimensionless pressure


Prandtl number =μ c p


Reynolds number = UH


Raichardson number = Gr/Re 2


Strouhal number = fH/U


Period of vortex shedding/dimensional temperature


Dimensional lower temperature


Dimensional higher temperature


Dimensionless time

\(\overline t \)

Dimensional time


Reference horizontal velocity


x-component of velocity


Vertical distance

Greek symbols


Thermal coefficient of volume expansion


A small positive quentity


Dimensionless temperature


Kinematic viscosity coefficient


Thermal conductivity


Co-efficient of viscosity


Fluid density



In the undisturbed fluid


At the wall


Dimensional quentity



One of the authors (S.B.) wish to thank CSIR, India for providing financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

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