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Effect of hydroxychloroquine on glucose control in patients with and without diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on glucose control.

Methods

Randomized controlled trials examining the impact of hydroxychloroquine on glycemic markers were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and sensitivity analysis through the leave-one-out method.

Results

Meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction of fasting glucose (WMD: − 8.05 mg/dl; 95% CI: − 11.17, − 4.93; I2 = 75%; p ˂0.0001), 2-h postprandial glucose (WMD: − 15.52 mg/dl; 95% CI: − 20.61, − 10.42; I2 = 53%; p ˂0.00001), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (WMD: − 0.19%, 95% CI: − 0.37, − 0.02; I2 = 94%; p = 0.03) after hydroxychloroquine treatment. Otherwise, meta-analysis showed no significant effect of hydroxychloroquine on insulin levels (WMD: 16.52 μUI/ml; 95% CI: − 16.35, 49.40; I2 = 90%; p = 0.32) and HOMA-β (WMD: − 14.62; 95% CI: − 45.84, 16.59; I2 = 0%; p = 0.36).

Conclusion

The present meta-analysis revealed that treatment with hydroxychloroquine improves glucose control through the reduction of fasting glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and HbA1c values. Given that the effect of hydroxychloroquine on beta-cell function is based only on two clinical trials, it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions.

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Contributions

All authors have participated in the design and approved the final version of the manuscript, taking responsibility for the contents of the article. LESM and MSM equally analyzed and interpreted data and wrote the manuscript. ASG collected analyzed data, and reviewed and edited the manuscript. ELT collected analyzed data, and reviewed and edited the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luis E. Simental-Mendía.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Simental-Mendía, L.E., Simental-Mendía, M., Sánchez-García, A. et al. Effect of hydroxychloroquine on glucose control in patients with and without diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 77, 1705–1712 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-021-03144-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-021-03144-7

Keywords

  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Glucose
  • Glycated hemoglobin
  • Insulin
  • Meta-analysis