Mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalization: a meta-analysis
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalisation (fatal ADRAd), to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics, and to identify system-organ classes involved and causative drugs for fatal ADRAd.
We identified prospective ADRAd-related studies via screening of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases with appropriate key terms. We estimated the prevalence of fatal ADRAd using a double arcsine method and explored heterogeneity using the following study characteristics: age groups, wards, study region, ADR definitions, ADR identification methods, study duration and sample size. We examined patterns of fatal ADRAd and causative drugs.
Among 312 full-text articles assessed, 49 studies satisfied the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean prevalence of fatal ADRAd was 0.20% (95% CI: 0.13–0.27%; I2 = 93%). The age groups and study wards were the important heterogeneity modifiers. The mean fatal ADRAd prevalence varied from 0.01% in paediatric patients to 0.44% in the elderly. Subgroup analysis showed a higher prevalence of fatal ADRAd in intensive care units, emergency departments, multispecialty wards and whole hospitals. Computer-based monitoring systems in combination with other methods detected higher mortality. Intracranial haemorrhage, renal failure and gastrointestinal bleeding accounted for more than 50% of fatal ADRAdcases. Warfarin, aspirin, renin–angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors and digoxin accounted for 60% of fatal ADRAd.
ADRAd is an important cause of mortality. Strategies targeting the safer use of warfarin, aspirin, RAS inhibitors and digoxin could reduce the large number of fatal ADRAdcases.
KeywordsAdverse drug reaction Hospital Prevalence Causative drugs Fatal reaction Meta-analysis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors each declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.
Sponsor(s) of the research
This study has no sponsors.
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