European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 71, Issue 8, pp 991–999 | Cite as

Trends in paediatric macrolide use in five European countries—a population-based study

  • Jakob Holstiege
  • Dirk Enders
  • Tania Schink
  • Francesco Innocenti
  • Alessandro Oteri
  • Irene Bezemer
  • Florentia Kaguelidou
  • Mariam Molokhia
  • Elisabetta Poluzzi
  • Aurora Puccini
  • Sinna Pilgaard Ulrichsen
  • Miriam C. Sturkenboom
  • Gianluca Trifirò
  • Edeltraut GarbeEmail author
Pharmacoepidemiology and Prescription



The study aims to analyse overall as well as subgroup-specific outpatient paediatric macrolide use in five European countries, including time trends of macrolide prescription rates, and to provide potential targets for future interventions aiming to promote judicious macrolide use.


Macrolide prescription rates per 1000 person years to paediatric outpatients (≤18 years) were calculated using healthcare databases from Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of increasing calendar year on total macrolide and subgroup-specific prescription rates based on monthly data, adjusted for seasonal variations. Time periods for which data were available varied between 4 (Italy 2007–10, Germany 2005–8) and 10 years (UK 2000–9).


Paediatric macrolide use in 2008 varied between 199 (Italy) and 47 (Netherlands) prescriptions per 1000 person years. Prescription rates of short-acting macrolides declined significantly in all countries but the UK. The use of intermediate-acting macrolides significantly rose with increasing calendar year in Denmark (rate ratio (RR) = 1.12) and the UK (RR = 1.06), but decreased in Germany (RR = 0.84) and The Netherlands (RR = 0.97). Prescription rates of long-acting agents increased in Denmark (RR = 1.05), The Netherlands (RR = 1.05) and the UK (RR = 1.11) (all trends p < 0.05). The greatest seasonal variations of macrolide use between summer and winter months were observed in Italy and Germany.


The observed trend toward increased prescribing of intermediate- and/or long-acting agents might further increase resistance pressure on bacterial pathogens due to their prolonged plasma half-life and broader antibacterial activity. Marked seasonality of prescription rates in the high-utilising countries, Italy and Germany, suggests frequent prescription of macrolides to treat respiratory infections which may be of viral origin.


Macrolides Utilisation Antibiotic resistance Paediatric Prescription rate Electronic healthcare database 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakob Holstiege
    • 1
  • Dirk Enders
    • 1
  • Tania Schink
    • 1
  • Francesco Innocenti
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alessandro Oteri
    • 4
  • Irene Bezemer
    • 5
  • Florentia Kaguelidou
    • 4
    • 6
  • Mariam Molokhia
    • 7
  • Elisabetta Poluzzi
    • 8
  • Aurora Puccini
    • 8
  • Sinna Pilgaard Ulrichsen
    • 9
  • Miriam C. Sturkenboom
    • 4
  • Gianluca Trifirò
    • 4
    • 10
  • Edeltraut Garbe
    • 1
    • 11
    Email author
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPSBremenGermany
  2. 2.Health Search, Italian College of General PractitionersFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Agenzia regionale di sanità della ToscanaFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Department of Medical InformaticsErasmus University Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.The PHARMO InstituteUtrechtThe Netherlands
  6. 6.AP-HP, Hôpital Robert Debré, Department of Pediatric Pharmacology and PharmacogeneticsUniv Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris CitéParisFrance
  7. 7.Department of Primary Care and Public Health SciencesKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  8. 8.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  9. 9.Department of Clinical EpidemiologyAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  10. 10.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and PharmacologyUniversity of Messina, Policlinico Universitario “G. Martino”MessinaItaly
  11. 11.Core Scientific Area ‘Health Sciences’University of BremenBremenGermany

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