The reproductive biology of the jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Quoy and Gaimard 1824) (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) was investigated in New South Wales, Australia. Medusae were gonochoristic. There was a 1:1 ratio of male and female medusae and there was no evidence of sexual dimorphism. Oocytes arose from the gastrodermis and maintained contact with the gastrodermis, via trophocytes, throughout gametogenesis. Spermatogenesis occurred within follicles that arose from invagination of the gastrodermis. Detailed sampling of gonads over a period of 3.25 yr in Botany Bay, and over 2.5 yr in Lake Illawarra, indicated that gametogenesis occurred almost continuously during the year. Oocytes were smaller, or were absent from the ovaries during 3 of the 4 winters sampled at Botany Bay and during all 3 winter periods sampled at Lake Illawarra. Comparisons were made with other locations, although these were sampled less frequently. When medusae were present at a location, similar trends were observed. The size at which medusae matured varied, but during non-winter periods and at two locations, all medusae exceeding 130 mm diam were considered mature.