Phylogeography provides insights into how historical and contemporary processes influence the genetic structure and gene flow in marine organisms around the globe. In benthic marine invertebrates, a species’ reproductive strategy can strongly impact phylogeographic patterns and distribution, with some direct-developing (non-planktonic) dispersers demonstrating strong genetic structure but also broad geographic spread. While seemingly paradoxical, past work has shown ovoviviparous species, like Littorina saxatilis, can be more successful colonizers of remote locations than species with planktonic larvae, like L. littorea. Both Littorina species overlap in much of their North Atlantic ranges but have different colonization histories: L. saxatilis is native on both North Atlantic coasts and islands, and L. littorea is native to the eastern Atlantic but introduced to the west. Using an extensive mitochondrial dataset (1236 sequences; 85 sites), we examined how their opposing reproductive strategies correspond to their distributions and phylogeographies. Littorina saxatilis exhibited a heterogeneous genetic structure reflecting post-glacial recolonization from multiple refugial sites, while L. littorea had a homogeneous structure with a post-glacial history characterized by recolonization from one main refugial area in the northeast Atlantic. Further, haplotype diversity was significantly depressed in northwest Atlantic L. littorea populations, signifying a strong bottleneck characteristic of a human-mediated introduction. In contrast, haplotype diversity in L. saxatilis was similar between the two regions, demonstrating long-term history on both coasts. Thus, our study suggests contrasting life-history characteristics were a major structuring force in the phylogeographic patterns of these related species following large-scale disturbances (natural and anthropogenic) that compel contraction and redistribution over large areas.
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All data are available in GENBANK (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). Compilation of data herein are provided as tables, figures, or appendices in the manuscript.
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We thank the following for assistance and/or guidance during the data collection, analysis, and/or writing of the manuscript: I. Altman, G. Ashton, S. Brawley, C. Brown, J. Byers, J. Canning-Clode, J. Carlton, A. Fowler, C. Hamer, M. Lesser, SERC Invasions Lab. We also thank the Smithsonian Institution’s postdoctoral award and research funding provided to Blakeslee while at SERC, and we thank CeMEB (www.cemeb.science.gu.se), funded by the Swedish research councils VR and Formas, for financial support for Panova.
Research was supported by the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (Blakeslee, Miller, Ruiz), East Carolina University (Blakeslee), and the University of Gothenberg (Johannesson, André, Panova).
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Blakeslee, A.M.H., Miller, A.W., Ruiz, G.M. et al. Population structure and phylogeography of two North Atlantic Littorina species with contrasting larval development. Mar Biol 168, 117 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-021-03918-8