Marine Biology

, 167:7 | Cite as

Lipid class composition of annually bleached Caribbean corals

  • Sarah L. Solomon
  • Andréa G. GrottoliEmail author
  • Mark E. Warner
  • Stephen Levas
  • Verena Schoepf
  • Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
Original Paper


Corals with high levels of total lipids are known to have increased resilience potential to bleaching, and lipid class management may shed further light on why some species are more resilient to, or are able to acclimatize to, annual bleaching stress. Here, we measured the lipid class composition of three species of Caribbean corals (Porites astreoides, Porites divaricata, and Orbicella faveolata) collected in July 2009 near Puerto Morelos, Mexico (20° 50′ N, 86° 52′ W) that were experimentally bleached 2 years in a row. Our results show that single bleaching can significantly alter lipid class composition in all species, while repeated bleaching can result in stable (i.e., acclimatized) or even more altered (i.e., not acclimatized) lipid class composition depending on the species. Specifically, P. divaricata and O. faveolata both had altered lipid class composition with losses in storage lipids following single bleaching, but maintained lipid class composition following repeated bleaching stress. However, both single and repeated bleaching altered the lipid class composition in P. astreoides, with changes persisting for the 6 weeks after repeated bleaching stress. This study provides evidence that lipid class management is part of the suite of variables associated with coral resilience, that P. divaricata and O. faveolata acclimatize their lipid class management in response to repeated bleaching stress, but that P. astreoides does not. Corals like P. divaricata and O. faveolata may, therefore, be more suitable for coral restoration efforts since they are more likely to persist under chronic repeat bleaching scenarios predicted for later this century.



We thank Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Ania Banaszak, Susana Enriquez, Robin Smith, and the staff of the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for their generous time and logistical support. We also thank Teresa Huey and Dana Borg for their field and laboratory help. We thank the reviewers for their comments and suggestions. Sarah Solomon was a student in Andréa Grottoli’s lab during the execution of this research.


This study was funded by the National Science Foundation (OCE#0825490 to A.G.G., OCE#0825413 to M.E.W) and the Hoover Foundation (to A.G.G.).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No competing interests declared.

Ethical approval

All collections and experiments were conducted following the rules and regulations of Mexico and imported to the USA under CITES permits held by UNAM-ICML and the Ohio State University.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 29 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (PDF 32 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (PDF 31 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (PDF 32 kb)
227_2019_3616_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (47 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.School of Marine Science and PolicyUniversity of DelawareLewesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Geology, and Environmental ScienceUniversity of Wisconsin-WhitewaterWhitewaterUSA
  4. 4.Oceans Graduate School, UWA Oceans Institute and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal BiologyThe Ohio State University at MansfieldMansfieldUSA

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