Marine Biology

, 166:98 | Cite as

Effects of light intensity and temperature on growth and ingestion rates of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense

  • An Suk Lim
  • Hae Jin JeongEmail author
  • Jin Hee Ok
  • Ji Hyun You
  • Hee Chang Kang
  • So Jin Kim
Original Paper


The newly described phototrophic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense, APPH1409, fed only on the dinoflagellate Margalefidinium polykrikoides among 16 potential algal prey species tested. To explore the ecophysiology of A. pohangense, its growth and ingestion rates with and without added M. polykrikoides prey were determined as a function of light intensity (0–346 µmol photons m−2 s−1) and temperature (10–35 °C). Both the autotrophic and mixotrophic growth rates of A. pohangense fed on M. polykrikoides were significantly affected by light intensity. In the darkness, A. pohangense did not grow under either mixotrophic or phototrophic conditions. The compensation light intensity for the growth of A. pohangense under mixotrophic conditions (2.7 µmol photons m−2 s−1) was lower than that under autotrophic conditions (11.7 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Growth inhibition due to light stress did not occur at the tested light intensities. A. pohangense grew between 15 and 30 °C, but did not grow at 10 °C or ≥ 32 °C. Both the autotrophic and mixotrophic growth rates of A. pohangense fed on M. polykrikoides were also significantly affected by temperature. At the same light intensity or temperature, the mixotrophic growth rate of A. pohangense was generally considerably greater than the autotrophic growth rate, with a few exceptions. Therefore, light intensity, water temperature, and prey accessibility may affect the population dynamics of this species.



This research was supported by the useful dinoflagellate program of Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) and development of the methods for controlling and managing marine ecological disturbance causing and harmful organisms (MEDHO) of KIMST. It was also supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2015M1A5A1041806 and NRF-2017R1E1A1A01074419) award to HJJ.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of organisms were followed

Supplementary material

227_2019_3546_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (571 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1. Procedure for the establishment of the experimental and control bottles. To ensure that the water conditions were similar, water from the predator culture (filtrate) was filtered through a 0.2-µm disposable membrane filter and then added to the prey control bottles at the same volume as that of the predator culture added to the predator control bottles and to the experimental bottles for each predator–prey combination. Furthermore, the water from the prey culture was filtered in the same manner and then added to the predator control bottles at the same volume as that of the prey culture added to the prey control bottles and the experimental bottles. Ap: Alexandrium pohangense (predator). Mp: Margalefidinium polykrikoides (prey). α: volume of added Ap culture, β: volume of added Mp culture. (PDF 571 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • An Suk Lim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hae Jin Jeong
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jin Hee Ok
    • 1
  • Ji Hyun You
    • 1
  • Hee Chang Kang
    • 1
  • So Jin Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Advanced Institutes of Convergence TechnologySuwonRepublic of Korea

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