A multi-factor empirical model for calculation of naupliar ingestion rate of the embayment copepod Acartia steueri Smirnov (Copepoda: Calanoida)
Mathematical approaches with multiple factors are essential for estimating in situ ingestion rates of copepod nauplii. The present study aimed to construct a multi-factor empirical model that could calculate naupliar carbon-specific ingestion rates using food concentrations and individual carbon weights. Laboratory feeding experiments were conducted to derive the functional response model and temperature quotient (Q10) of the naupliar stages of the embayment copepod Acartia steueri from NIII to NVI. Experiments were conducted with haptophyte Isochrysis galbana at different concentrations for all stages and at different temperatures for NV. Carbon-specific ingestion rates in relation to food concentration followed a type III functional response model at every developmental stage, with two constants of a maximum carbon-specific ingestion rate and a half-saturation food concentration. Each of the two constants varied and was significantly related to individual carbon weights, and two relational equations were obtained from the relationships. By substituting the equations into a type III functional response model, an empirical model was constructed. Carbon-specific ingestion rates of NV increased with increasing temperature and Q10 was determined to be 2.37. Estimated carbon-specific ingestion rates calculated using the empirical model and Q10 were significantly related to the measured carbon-specific ingestion rates. This trend was also confirmed in a dataset of ingestion rates of Oithona davisae nauplii quoted from a previous study. This suggests that the empirical model proposed here might be widely applicable for other species of copepod nauplii.
Many thanks to Prof. Tatsushi Matsuyama, Soka University, for his valuable comments on the mathematical model. We thank the referees for their constructive comments that allowed us to improve the article.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or non-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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