In situ common garden assays demonstrate increased defense against natural fouling in non-native populations of the red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla
- 358 Downloads
The susceptibility of native and non-native populations of the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla to fouling was compared in common garden experiments. Native and non-native algae were enclosed into dialysis membrane tubes, and the tubes were exposed to natural fouling. Fouling on the outside of the tubes was mediated by chemical compounds excreted by G. vermiculophylla that diffused through the membranes. Fouling pressure was significantly higher in the Kiel Fjord (non-native range) than in Akkeshi Bay (native range), but, at both sites, tubes containing non-native G. vermiculophylla were less fouled than those with native conspecifics. This is the first in situ evidence that susceptibility to fouling differs between native and non-native populations of an aquatic organism. The technique of enclosing organisms into dialysis tubes represents a simple, efficient and accurate way to test chemical antifouling defenses and could possibly be applied to other organisms.
S. Wang was supported by a scholarship from the China Scholarship Council (CSC) at GEOMAR—Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung in Kiel. We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Martin Wahl for his valuable support and technical advices for experimental design. We are thankful to Renate Schütt for her great help in epibionts identification and to Nadja Stärck for her technical advices and help with field work preparation. We are very grateful to Dr. Inken Kruse, Dr. Takehisa Yamakita, Haruka Yamaguchi and Carola Schuller for collecting and sending algal samples. We acknowledge: NSF BIO-OCE-1357386.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was funded by the China Scholarship Council (CSC) (Number 201206330050).
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
All experimental data underlying this publication are available from the PANGAEA repository (doi: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.865280).
- da Gama BAP, Plouguerné E, Pereira RC (2014) The antifouling defence mechanisms of marine macroalgae. In: Bourgougnon N (ed) Advances in botanical research. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 413–440Google Scholar
- Freshwater DW, Montgomery F, Greene JK, Hamner RM, Williams M, Whitfield PE (2006) Distribution and identification of an invasive Gracilaria species that is hampering commercial fishing operations in southeastern North Carolina, USA. Biol Invasions 8:631–637. doi: 10.1007/s10530-005-1809-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hammann M, Rempt M, Pohnert G, Wang G, Boo SM, Weinberger F (2016a) Increased potential for wound activated production of Prostaglandin E-2 and related toxic compounds in non-native populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Harmful Algae 51:81–88. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2015.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Korpinen S, Honkanen T, Vesakoski O, Hemmi A, Koivikko R, Loponen J, Jormalainen V (2007) Macroalgal communities face the challenge of changing biotic interactions: review with focus on the Baltic Sea. Ambio 36:203–211. doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[203:mcftco]2.0.co;2Google Scholar
- Lion U, Wiesemeier T, Weinberger F, Beltrán J, Flores V, Faugeron S, Correa J, Pohnert G (2006) Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes. ChemBioChem 7:457–462. doi: 10.1002/cbic.200500365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lubchenco J, Olson AM, Brubaker LB, Carpenter SR, Holland MM, Hubbell SP, Levin SA, Macmahon JA, Matson PA, Melillo JM, Mooney HA, Peterson CH, Pulliam HR, Real LA, Regal PJ, Risser PG (1991) The sustainable biosphere initiative: an ecological research agenda: a report from the Ecological Society of America. Ecology 72:371–412. doi: 10.2307/2937183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rempt M, Weinberger F, Grosser K, Pohnert G (2012) Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Beilstein J Org Chem 8:283–289. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.8.30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spalding MD, Fox HE, Halpern BS, McManus MA, Molnar J, Allen GR, Davidson N, Jorge ZA, Lombana AL, Lourie SA, Martin KD, McManus E, Molnar J, Recchia CA, Robertson J (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. Bioscience 57:573–583. doi: 10.1641/b570707 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Streftaris N, Zenetos A, Papathanassiou E (2005) Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr Mar Biol 43:419–453Google Scholar
- Thevanathan R, Nirmala M, Manoharan A, Gangadharan A, Rajarajan R, Dhamothrarn R, Selvaraj S (2000) On the occurrence of nitrogen fixing bacteria as epibacterial flora of some marine green algae. Seaweed Res Utiln 22:189–197Google Scholar
- Vermeij MJA, Smith TB, Dailer ML, Smith CM (2009) Release from native herbivores facilitates the persistence of invasive marine algae: a biogeographical comparison of the relative contribution of nutrients and herbivory to invasion success. Biol Invasions 11:1463–1474. doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9354-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vitousek PM, Dantonio CM, Loope LL, Westbrooks R (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84:468–478Google Scholar