Seawater warming is emerging as a result of increasing global temperature. In this study, Zostera japonica (Ascherson and Graebner) collected from the intertidal zones of Changdao (37°N, 120°E) were used to investigate the responses of photosynthetic electron transport to thermal exposure in April 2016. As seawater temperature rose from 20 to 32 °C, increases of the relative variable fluorescence at the K-step to the amplitude of F J–F o (W k) and the maximum photochemical efficiency (F v/F m) indicated inhibition of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers, respectively. When exposed to 32 °C for 4 h, both OEC and PSII reaction centers suffered irreversible damage, confirming that 32 °C is the upper critical seawater temperature for Z. japonica photosynthetic electron transport. As a thermal inhibition indicator, PIabs exhibited a time-dependent linear decrease, with irreversible damage of the PSII reaction center occurring once the value of PIabs dropped below 10.60. Based on results of the photosynthetic performance, thermal response strategies were summarized as: (1) an enhancement in the efficiency of the active PSII reaction centers; (2) an increase in the activity of the PSII electron acceptor side; (3) an enhancement in the activities of both PSI and the cyclic electron transport around PSI; (4) the alternation between PSII and PSI. Such adaptive strategies may balance the redox state of electron transport and regulate the distribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems, thereby protecting Z. japonica from ocean warming.
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This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41376154).
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All authors declared that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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Zhang, D., Zhang, Q.S. & Yang, X.Q. Adaptive strategies of Zostera japonica photosynthetic electron transport in response to thermal stress. Mar Biol 164, 35 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-016-3064-y
- Seawater Temperature
- Photosynthetic Electron Transport
- Thermal Exposure
- PSII Reaction Center
- Acceptor Side