Geographic patterns of Symbiodinium diversity associated with the coral Mussismilia hispida (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) correlate with major reef regions in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean
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Shallow water reef-building corals associate with photosynthesizing dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) that may affect growth and resilience of their hosts. Understanding host–symbiont associations is critical for assessing the susceptibility of corals to climatic changes. Despite that, the diversity of Symbiodinium associated with corals from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean is poorly known. Here, we describe diversity across major Symbiodinium clades associated with colonies of the endemic reef-building coral Mussismilia hispida (Verrill, 1902) along the Brazilian coast. By analyzing the 18S rDNA gene, we found that M. hispida associates with three clades of Symbiodinium (A, B and C). Moreover, the geographic distribution of host–symbiont associations is related to temperature and turbidity and closely follows previously recognized reef regions along the Brazilian coast. These results suggest that similar ecological processes are likely shaping both the reef communities and the host–symbiont associations over M. hispida distribution along the coast. Our study provides an advance in the understanding of symbiont diversity in a key reef-building coral. In addition, it contributes new insights for future investigations aiming at comprehending the factors determining Symbiodinium geographic distribution.
KeywordsCoral Reef Oceanic Island Coral Community Brazilian Coast Brazil Current
We thank Dr. A. M. Solé-Cava (UFRJ) and Dr. M. Klautau (UFRJ) for laboratory facilities. Thomas Bell (UCSB) provided helpful assistance with compilation of MODIS-Aqua data. Dr. M. Warner (UD) generously supplied DNA extracts of Symbiodinium cultures. Dr. E. Calderon (Coral Vivo/MNRJ), C. Pereira (Coral Vivo), L. Lopes (Coral Vivo), A. Climério, J. Medeiros (CEBIMar), E. Honuma (CEBIMar) and J. Sebroeck (in memoriam, CEBIMar) provided assistance in field collections. Dr. T. Oakley (UCSB), colleagues of the Evolution Seminar (EV595/UCSB), L. Lima (IEAPM) and V. Tascheri (UFRJ) contributed with insightful comments on early versions of the manuscript. We thank the Brazilian Marine Biodiversity Network SISBIOTA-Mar (CNPq 563276/2010-0 and FAPESC 6308/2011-8, PI: S.R. Floeter) for collection of samples at PML, FZ, TE, SA, AR, FN and TR. Project BIOTA (FAPERJ E-26/110.015/2011, PI: PC Paiva), particularly, Dr. R. Ventura and Dr. F. Pitombo for collecting at IG, A. Garrido and L. Peluso for sampling in GP and Dr. F. Nunes for the JP samples. We also thank the Coral Vivo Research Network, sponsored by Petrobras through the program Petrobras Socioenvironmental and co-sponsored by Arraial D’Ajuda EcoParque, for financial and logistical support for field work, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for a master fellowship to NP (process 130913/2011-1) and a research fellowship to PCP (process 303939/2014-1). We are thankful to the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group for production and distribution of MODIS-Aqua satellite data.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest relevant to the subject of this article.
Animal rights statement
Animals have been sampled and/or treated according to the national legislation, and all required permissions have been obtained.
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