Deficit in digestive capabilities of bamboo shark early stages under climate change
- 490 Downloads
Little empirical information is currently available on the potential effects of acidification and/or warming in sharks, but none exist about digestive capabilities under such future conditions. Here, we investigated the impact of both acidification (ΔpH = 0.5) and warming (+4; 30 °C) on the digestive enzyme levels of recently hatched tropical bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum). Thirty days post-hatching, juvenile sharks revealed a significant increase in pancreatic trypsin levels under warming, but also a significant decrease under acidification, namely a 42 % drop under present-day temperature and 44 % drop under the warming condition. A similar trend was recorded for the alkaline phosphatase activity in shark’s intestine, i.e. the impact of environmental hypercapnia was also quite notorious—a 50 % drop under present-day temperature and 49 % drop under the warming condition. Thus, our present findings suggest that acidification and warming acted antagonistically, leading to similar enzyme activities under present and future conditions. Future directions on this topic of research should point towards the study of other types of sharks, namely pelagic ones with quite higher energetic demands.
KeywordsOcean Acidification Brush Border Enzyme High Energetic Demand Epaulette Shark Bamboo Shark
The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) supported this study through Programa Investigador FCT 2013—Development Grant, and project grant PTDC/AAG-GLO/1926/2014 to R. Rosa.
- Bessey OA, Lowry OH, Brock MJ (1946) A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphatase with 5 cubic millimeters of serum. J Biol Chem 164:321–329Google Scholar
- Compagno LJV (2001) Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO species catalogue for fishery purposes, no 1, vol 2, p 269Google Scholar
- Dickson A, Sabine C, Christian J (2007) Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. PICES Spec Pub 3:191Google Scholar
- Dulvy NK, Fowler SL, Musick JA, Cavanagh RD, Kyne PM, Harrison LR, Carlson JK, Davidson LNK, Fordham SV, Francis MP, Pollock CM, Simpfendorfer CA, Burgess GH, Carpenter KE, Compagno LJV, Ebert DA, Gibson C, Heupel MR, Livingstone SR, Sanciangco JC, Stevens JD, Valenti S, White WT (2014) Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. Elife. doi: 10.7554/eLife.00590 Google Scholar
- Ferretti F, Worm B, Britten GL, Heithaus MR, Lotze HK (2010) Patterns and ecosystem consequences of shark declines in the ocean. Ecol Lett 13:1055–1071Google Scholar
- Hochachka PW, Somero GN (2002) Biochemical adaptation: mechanisms and process in physiological evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Holm H, Hanssen LE, Krogdahl A, Florholmen J (1988) High and low inhibitor soybean meals affect human duodenal proteinase activity differently: in vivo comparison with bovine serum albumin. J Nutr 118:515–520Google Scholar
- Lewis E, Wallace DWR (1998) CO2SYS-program developed for the CO2 system calculations. In: Carbon dioxide information analysis center report ORNL/CDIAC-105Google Scholar
- Pörtner H-O, Karl DM, Boyd PW, Cheung WWL, Lluch-Cota SE, Nojiri Y, Schmidt DN, Zavialov PO (2014) Ocean systems. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability part A: global and sectoral aspects contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 411–484Google Scholar