Skip to main content

Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) use ink for predation as well as for defence

Abstract

Inking is one of the defensive tactics in cephalopods. By observing the predatory behaviours of Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) towards three crustacean prey species (Neomysis intermedia, Latreutes acicularis, and Palaemon serrifer), we found that ink is also used for predation. Inking behaviour during predation was observed 17 times in 322 trials. Squid successfully attacked prey after inking in 13 cases (8 trials with L. acicularis and 5 trials with P. serrifer). Ink was never used to attack N. intermedia despite the fact that this was the most commonly captured prey. Ink use during attacks can be divided into two types: (1) squid release ink between themselves and the prey and then attack through the ink cloud, and (2) squid release ink away from the prey and then attack from another direction. The success rate of ink attacks differed significantly between the two prey species on which ink attacks were made.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Bush SL, Robison BH (2007) Ink utilization by mesopelagic squid. Mar Biol 152:485–494. doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0684-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caldwell RL (2005) An observation of inking behaviour protecting adult Octopus bocki from predation by green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings. Pac Sci 59:69–72. doi:10.1353/psc.2005.0004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Derby CD (2007) Escape by inking and secreting: marine molluscs avoid predators through a rich array of chemicals and mechanisms. Biol Bull 213:274–289

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Downes S, Shine R (2001) Why does tail loss increase a lizard’s later vulnerability to snake predators? Ecology 82:1293–1303. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[1293:WDTLIA]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edmunds M (1974) Defence in animals. Longman, Harlow

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanlon RT, Messenger JB (1996) Cephalopod behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Kasugai T (2001) Feeding behaviour of the Japanese pygmy cuttlefish Idiosepius paradoxus (Cephalopoda: Idiosepiidae) in captivity: evidence for external digestion? J Mar Biol Assoc UK 81:979–981. doi:10.1017/S0025315401004933

    Google Scholar 

  • Mallet J, Joron M (1999) Evolution of diversity in warning color and mimicry: polymorphisms, shifting balance, and speciation. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 30:201–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moynihan M (1983) Notes on the behavior of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Cephalopoda; Idiosepiidae). Behaviour 85:42–57. doi:10.1163/156853983X00039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakata K, Ushimaru A (1999) Feeding experience affects web relocation and investment in web threads in an orb-web spider, Cyclosa argenteoalba. Anim Behav 57:1251–1255. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Hanlon JC, Holwell GI, Herberstein ME (2014) Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis. Am Nat 183:126–132. doi:10.1086/673858

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  • Rochette R, Doyle SP, Edgell TC (2007) Interaction between an invasive decapod and a native gastropod: predator foraging tactics and prey architectural defenses. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 330:179–188. doi:10.3354/meps330179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sasaki M (1923) On an adhering habit of a pygmy cuttlefish, Idiosepius pygmaeus Steenstrup. Annot Zool Jpn 10:209–213

    Google Scholar 

  • Shallenberger RJ, Madden WD (1973) Luring behavior in the scorpionfish, Iracundus signifer. Behaviour 47:33–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shimazaki M, Nakaya K (2004) Functional anatomy of the luring apparatus of the deep-sea ceratioid anglerfish Cryptopsaras couesii (Lophiiformes: Ceratiidae). Ichthyol Res 51:33–37. doi:10.1007/s10228-003-0190-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shine R, Li-Xin S (2002) Arboreal ambush site selection by pit-vipers Gloydius shedaoensis. Anim Behav 63:565–576. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Staudinger M, Michelle D, Hanlon RT, Francis J (2011) Primary and secondary defences of squid to cruising and ambush fish predators: variable tactics and their survival value. Anim Behav 81:585–594. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.12.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stowe MK, Tumlinson JH, Heath RR (1987) Chemical mimicry: bolas spiders emit components of moth prey species sex pheromones. Science 236:964–967. doi:10.1126/science.236.4804.964

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stuart-Fox D, Moussalli A, Whiting MJ (2008) Predator-specific camouflage in chameleons. Biol Lett UK 4:326–329. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takeshita F, Sato N (2016) Adaptive sex-specific cognitive bias in predation behaviours of Japanese pygmy squid. Ethology 122:236–244. doi:10.1111/eth.12464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Théry M, Debut M, Gomez D, Casas J (2004) Specific color sensitivities of prey and predator explain camouflage in different visual systems. Behav Ecol 16:25–29. doi:10.1093/beheco/arh130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood JB, Maynard AE, Lawlor AG, Sawyer EK, Simmons DM, Pennoyer KE, Derby CD (2010) Caribbean reef squid, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, use ink as a defense against predatory French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 388:20–27. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2010.03.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank T. Takegaki for his critical comments on the manuscript and T. Watanabe for his advice on classification of shrimp. We also thank C. L. Risley for preparing the manuscript. We thank four referees for their helpful comments. This research was supported financially by Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists (to NS and FT).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Noriyosi Sato.

Additional information

Reviewed by B. H. Robison and undisclosed experts.

Responsible Editor: G. Pierce.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (MPG 10094 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MPG 12758 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (MPG 14166 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sato, N., Takeshita, F., Fujiwara, E. et al. Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) use ink for predation as well as for defence. Mar Biol 163, 56 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-016-2833-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-016-2833-y

Keywords

  • Prey Species
  • Predation Success
  • Predatory Defence
  • Dorsal Mantle Length
  • European Green Crab