In situ biomonitoring shows seasonal patterns and environmentally mediated gaping activity in the bivalve, Pinna nobilis
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The rhythms and responses of animals to environmental factors are important issues for their adaptation to natural cycles. These rhythms assure an optimum synchrony between organisms and their environment. Bio-logging enables monitoring these activity cycles remotely. To characterize rhythms and responses of fan mussels (Pinna nobilis) to environmental factors, six individuals were monitored from April 2009 to October 2011. The study was conducted at a station in the western Mediterranean at 11 m depth in Tabarca Island Marine Reserve (Alicante, Spain). Sensors at the station monitored dissolved oxygen (mg l−1), turbidity (ntu), temperature (°C), chlorophyll a concentration (chl a) (mg m−3), current speed (cm s−1), and direction (°). One pattern of gaping activity (P1) occurred from mid-July–early August–early November, whereas another pattern (P2) occurred the rest of the time (i.e., from early November–mid-July–early August). The activity was synchronized among the fan mussels and showed autocorrelation peaks at a period of 21.9–24 h. In P1, the fan mussels opened their valves according to the position and illumination of the sun and moon. In P2, however, individuals did not track sun and moonlight, although their gaping activity was regular and synchronized. Likewise, individuals were unaffected by high-frequency (daily) variation in dissolved oxygen and (chl a). Gaping activity was directly influenced by current intensity and direction. The shift between the two patterns and the presence of similar periods of autocorrelation in the activity time series indicate that P. nobilis has an internal clock.
KeywordsBivalve Current Velocity Full Moon Marine Reserve Valve Closure
The project was funded by “Obra Social Caja Madrid” of “Caja Madrid” Bank. We are grateful to Felio Lozano, the coordinator of Tabarca Island Marine Reserve, the guards of the Reserve, Silvia Revenga and the RMIP—SGM—MARM, for their permissions, collaboration, and inestimable help with the work in the MPA. We are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers and the editors for their comments that have strongly improved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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