Skip to main content

Protected species use of a coastal marine migratory corridor connecting marine protected areas

Abstract

The establishment of protected corridors linking the breeding and foraging grounds of many migratory species remains deficient, particularly in the world’s oceans. For example, Australia has recently established a network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves, supplementing existing State reserves, to protect a wide range of resident and migratory marine species; however, the routes used by mobile species to access these sites are often unknown. The flatback marine turtle (Natator depressus) is endemic to the continental shelf of Australia, yet information is not available about how this species uses the marine area. We used a geospatial approach to delineate a coastal corridor from 73 adult female flatback postnesting migratory tracks from four rookeries along the north-west coast of Australia. A core corridor of 1,150 km length and 30,800 km2 area was defined, of which 52 % fell within 11 reserves, leaving 48 % (of equivalent size to several Commonwealth Reserves) of the corridor outside of the reserve network. Despite limited data being available for other marine wildlife in this region, humpback whale migratory tracks overlapped with 96 % of the core corridor, while the tracks of three other species overlapped by 5–10 % (blue whales, olive ridley turtles, whale sharks). The overlap in the distribution ranges of at least 20 other marine vertebrates (dugong, cetaceans, marine turtles, sea snakes, crocodiles, sharks) with the corridor also imply potential use. In conclusion, this study provides valuable information towards proposing new locations requiring protection, as well as identifying high-priority network linkages between existing marine protected areas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Agardy TM (1994) Advances in marine conservation: the role of marine protected areas. Trends Ecol Evol 9:267–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agardy TM, Notarbartolo di Sciara G, Christie P (2011) Mind the gap: addressing the shortcomings of marine protected areas through large scale marine spatial planning. Mar Policy 35:226–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akesson S, Hedenstrom A (2007) How migrants get there: migratory performance and orientation. Bioscience 57(2):123–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alerstam T, Hake M, Kjellen N (2006) Temporal and spatial patterns of repeated migratory journeys by osprey. Anim Behav 71:555–566

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Australian Government (2008) The North-west Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile. Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts ISBN:978-642-55448-2

  • Bagchi R, Crosby M, Huntley B, Hole DG, Butchart SHM, Collingham Y, Kalra M, Rajkumar J, Rahmani A, Pandey M, Gurung H, Trai LT, Quang NV, Willis SG (2013) Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation site networks under climate change: accounting for uncertainty. Glob Change Biol 19:1236–1248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey HE, Mate BR, Palacios DM, Irvine L, Bograd S, Costa DP (2009) Behavioural estimation of blue whale movements in the Northeast Pacific from state-space model analysis of satellite tracks. Endang Species Res 10:93–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumgartner S (2004) Optimal investment in multi-species protection: interacting species and ecosystem health. EcoHealth 1(1):101–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bejder L, Hodgson A, Loneragan N, Allen S (2012) Coastal dolphins in north-western Australia: the need for re-evaluation of species listings and short-comings in the environmental impact assessment process. Pac Conserv Biol 18:22–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Berger J (2004) The last mile: how to sustain long-distance migration in mammals. Conserv Biol 18(2):320–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bestley S, Patterson TA, Hindell MA, Gunn JS (2010) Predicting feeding success in a migratory predator: integrating telemetry, environment, and modelling techniques. Ecology 91(8):2373–2384

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Block BA, Jonsen ID, Jorgensen SJ, Winship AJ, Shaffer SA, Bograd SJ, Hazen EL, Foley DG, Breed GA, Harrison A-L, Ganong JE, Swithenbank A, Castleton M, Dewar H, Mate BR, Shillinger GL, Schaefer KM, Benson SR, Weise MJ, Henry RW, Costa DP (2011) Tracking apex marine predator movements in a dynamic ocean. Nature 475:86–90. doi:10.1038/nature10082

    Google Scholar 

  • Blumenthal JM, Solomon JL, Bell CD, Austin TJ, Ebanks-Petrie G, Coyne MS, Broderick AC, Godley BJ (2006) Satellite tracking highlights the need for international cooperation in marine turtle management. Endang Species Res 2:51–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boersma PD, Parrish JK (1999) Limiting abuse: marine protected areas, a limited solution. Ecol Econ 31:287–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borger L, Franconi N, De Michele G, Gantz A, Meschi F, Manica A (2006) Effects of sampling regime on the mean and variance of home range estimates. J Anim Ecol 75:1393–1405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Branch TA, Stafford KM, Palacios SM, Allison C, Bannister JL, Burton CLK, Cabrera E (2007) Carlson CA, Galletti Vernazzani B, Gill PC, Hucke-Gaete R, Jenner KCS, Jenner M-NM, Matsuoka K, Mikhalev YA, Miyashita T, Morrice MG, Nishiwaki S, Sturrock VJ, Tormosov D, Anderson RC, Baker AN, Best PB, Borsa P, Brownell JnRL, Childerhouse S, Findlay KP, Gerrodette T, Ilangakoon AD, Joergensen M, Kahn B, Ljungblad DK, Maughan B, McCauley RD, McKay S, Norris TF, Oman Whale and Dolphin Research Group, Rankin S, Samaran F, Thiele D, van Waerebeek K, Warneke RM (2007) Past and present distribution, densities and movements of blue whales Balaenoptera musculus in the Southern Hemisphere and northern Indian Ocean. Mammal Rev 37(2):116–175

  • Broderick AC, Coyne MS, Fuller WJ, Glen F, Godley BJ (2007) Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles. P Roy Soc B Biol Sci 274:1533–1538

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cantu-Salazar L, Orme CDL, Rasmussen PC, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ (2013) The performance of the global protected area system in capturing vertebrate geographic ranges. Biodivers Conserv 22(4):1033–1047

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chape S, Harrison J, Spalding M, Lysenko I (2005) Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philos T R Soc B 360:443–455

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherney DN, Clark SG (2009) The American West’s longest large mammal migration: clarifying and securing the common interest. Policy Sci 42(2):95–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chetkiewicz C-LB, St. Clair CC, Boyce MS (2006) Corridors for conservation: integrating pattern and process. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:317–342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Double MC, Gales N, Jenner KCS, Jenner M-N (2010) Satellite tagging of south-bound female humpback whales in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Final Report. Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division

  • Double MC, Jenner KCS, Ball I, Laverick S, Gales N (2012a) Satellite tracking of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) off Western Australia. Final Report. Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division

  • Double MC, Jenner KCS, Jenner M-N, Ball I, Childerhouse S, Laverick S, Gales N (2012b) Satellite tracking of northbound humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off Western Australia. Final Report. Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division

  • Fernandes L, Day J, Lewis A, Slegers S, Kerrigan B, Breen D, Cameron D, Jago B, Hall J, Lowe D, Innes J, Tanzer J, Chadwick V, Thompson L, Gorman K, Simmons M, Barnett B, Sampson K, De’ath G, Mapstone B, Marsh H, Possingham H, Ball I, Ward T, Dobbs K, Aymend J, Slater D, Stapleton K (2005) Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conserv Biol 19(6):1733–1744

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Firestone J, Lyons SB, Chengfeng W, Corbett JJ (2008) Statistical modelling of North Atlantic right whale migration along the mid-Atlantic region of the eastern seaboard of the United States. Biol Conserv 141:221–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fitzsimons JA (2011) Mislabelling marine protected areas and why it matters—a case study of Australia. Conserv Lett 4:340–345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gales N, Double MC, Robinson S, Jenner C, Jenner M, King E, Gedamke J, Childerhouse S, Paton D (2009) Satellite tracking of Australian humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda). Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division

  • Guzman HM, Benfield S, Breedy O, Mair JM (2008) Broadening reef protection across the Marine Conservation Corridor of the Eastern Tropical Pacific: distribution and diversity of reefs in Las Perlas Archipelago, Panama. Environ Conserv 35(1):46–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamann M, Limpus CJ, Owens DW (2003) Reproductive cycles of males and females. In: Lutz PL, Musick JA, Wyneken J (eds) The biology of sea turtles, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 135–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamel MA, McMahon CR, Bradshaw CJA (2008) Flexible inter-nesting behaviour of generalist olive ridley turtles in Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 359:47–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawkes LA, Witt MJ, Broderick AC, Coker JW, Coyne MS, Dodd M, Frick MG, Godfrey MH, Griffin DB, Murphy SR, Murphy TM, Williams KL, Godley BJ (2011) Home on the range: spatial ecology of loggerhead turtles in Atlantic waters of the USA. Divers Distrib 17:624–640

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hays GC, Scott R (2013) Global patterns for upper ceilings on migration distance in sea turtles and comparisons with fish, birds and mammals. Funct Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12073

    Google Scholar 

  • Hays GC, Akeson S, Godley GB, Luschi P, Santidrian P (2001) The implications of location accuracy for the interpretation of satellite-tracking data. Anim Behav 61:1035–1040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hays GC, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Mariani P, Schofield G (2010) Ontogenetic development of migration: Lagrangian drift trajectories suggest a new paradigm for sea turtles. J R Soc Interface 7(50):1319–1327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hazel JA, Gyuris E (2004) Vessel-related mortality of sea turtles in Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Res 33(2):149–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heithaus MR, Wirsing AJ, Dill LM, Heithaus LI (2007) Long-term movements of tiger sharks satellite-tagged in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Mar Biol 151:1455–1461

  • Heller NE, Zavaleta ES (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biol Conserv 142:132–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hilty J, Lidicker W Jr, Merenlender A (2006) Corridor ecology: the science and practice of linking landscapes for biodiversity conservation. Washington Island Press, Washington

  • Hoenner X, Whiting SD, Hindell MA, McMahon CR (2012) Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals. PlosOne 7(7):e0713

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holland MB (2012) Mesoamerican biological corridor. In: Hilty JA et al (eds) Climate and conservation: landscape and seascape science, planning and action. Island Press, Washington

  • Hooker SK, Whitehead H, Gowans S (1999) Marine protected area design and the spatial and temporal distribution of cetaceans in a submarine canyon. Conserv Biol 13(3):592–602

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hooker SK, Cañadas A, Hyrenbach D, Corrigan C, Polovina JJ, Reeves RR (2011) Making protected area networks effective for marine top predators. Endang Species Res 13:203–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hyrenbach KD, Forney KA, Dayton PK (2000) Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquat Conserv 10:437–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Innes R, Polasky S, Tschirhart T (1998) Takings, compensation and endangered species protection on private lands. J Econ Perspect 12(3):35–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jenness J (2012) Repeating shapes for ArcGIS. Jenness Enterprises. http://www.jennessent.com/arcgis/repeat_shapes.htm

  • Jones TT, Van Houtan KS, Bostrom BL, Ostafichuk P, Mikkelsen J, Tezcan E, Carey M, Imlach B, Seminoff JA (2013) Calculating the ecological impacts of animal-borne instruments on aquatic organisms. Methods Ecol Evol 4:1178–1186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • King MC, Beazley KF (2005) Selecting focal species for marine protected area network planning in the Scotia-Fundy region of Atlantic Canada. Aquat Conserv 15:367–385

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kinney MJ, Simpfendorfer CF (2009) Reassessing the value of nursery areas to shark conservation and management. Conserv Lett 2:53–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laurel BJ, Bradbury IR (2006) “Big” concerns with high latitude marine protected areas (MPAs): trends in connectivity and MPA size. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2603–2607

  • Lewison RL, Crowder LB, Read AJ, Freeman SA (2004) Understanding impacts of fisheries by catch on marine megafauna. Trends Ecol Evol 19(11):598–604

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Limpus CJ (2009) Chapter 5. Flatback turtle Natator depressus (Garman). In: A biological review of Australian Marine Turtles. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, pp 246–297

  • Limpus CJ, Parmenter JC, Baker V, Fleay A (1983) The flatback turtle, Chelonia depressa, in Queensland: post nesting migration and feeding ground distribution. Aust Wildlife Res 10:557–561

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Limpus CJ, Miller JD, Paramenter CJ, Reimer D, McLachlan N, Webb R (1992) Migration of green (Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles to and from eastern Australian rookeries. Wildlife Res 19(3):347–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lipcius RN, Stockhausen WT, Seitz RD, Geer PJ (2003) Spatial dynamics and value of a marine protected area and corridor for the blue crab spawning stock in Chesapeake Bay. B Mar Sci 72(2):453–469

    Google Scholar 

  • Luschi P, Hays GC, Del Seppia C, Marsh R, Papi F (1998) The navigational feats of green sea turtles migrating from Ascension Island investigated by satellite telemetry. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 265:2279–2284

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Makowski C, Seminoff JA, Salmon M (2006) Home range and habitat use of juvenile Atlantic green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) on shallow reef habitats in Palm Beach, Florida, USA. Mar Biol 148:1167–1179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsh H, Corkeron PJ, Limpus CJ, Shaughnessy PD, Ward TM (1993) Chapter 22: conserving marine mammals and reptiles in Australia and Oceania. In Moritz C, Kikkawa J (eds) Conservation biology in Australia and Oceania. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, pp 225–244

  • Marsh H, Eros C, Corkeron P, Breen B (1999) A conservation strategy for dugongs: implications of Australian research. Mar Freshw Res 50(8):979–990

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell SM, Breed GA, Nickel BA et al (2011) Using satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: olive ridley sea turtle conservation in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 6:e19905

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell SM, Hazen EL, Bograd SJ et al (2013) Cumulative human impacts on marine predators. Nature Commun 4:2688

    Google Scholar 

  • McMahon CR, Bradshaw CJA, Hays GC (2007) Satellite tracking reveals unusual diving characteristics for a marine reptile, the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 329:239–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McNeill SE (1994) The selection and design of marine protected areas: Australia as a case study. Biodivers Conserv 3:586–605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mullen KA, Peterson ML, Todd SK (2013) Has designating and protecting critical habitat had an impact on endangered North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality? Mar Policy 42:293–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mumby PJ (2006) Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithm for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales. Biol Conserv 128:215–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newmark WD (1987) A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks. Nature 325:430–432

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olavo G, Costa PAS, Martins AS, Ferreira BP (2011) Shelf-edge reefs as priority areas for conservation of reef fish diversity in the tropical Atlantic. Aquat Conserv 21:199–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parks SA, Harcourt AH (2002) Reserve size, local human density, and mammalian extinctions in US protected areas. Conserv Biol 16:800–808

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pendoley KL, Bell CD, McCracken R, Ball KR, Sherborne J, Oates JE, Becker P, Vitenbergs A, Whittock PA (2014) Reproductive biology of the flatback turtle (Natator depressus) at three previously undescribed rookeries in Western Australia. Endang Species Res 23:115–123. doi 10.3354/esr00569

  • Pinaud D (2007) Quantifying search effort of moving animals at several spatial scales using first-passage time analysis: effect of the structure of environment and tracking systems. J App Ecol 45(1):91–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prince RIT (1998) Marine turtle conservation: the links between populations in Western Australia and the Northern Australian region. People and turtles. In: Kennet R, Webb A, Duff G, Guinea M, Hill G (eds) Marine turtle conservation and management in Northern Australia. Northern Territory University, Darwin, pp 93–99

    Google Scholar 

  • Pritchard PCH (1997) Evolution, phylogeny and current status. In: Lutz PL, Musick JA (eds) The biology of sea turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Redfern JV, Ferguson MC, Becker EA, Hyrenbach KD, Good CP, Barlow J, Kaschner K, Baumgartner MF, Forney KA, Ballance LT, Fauchald P, Halpin PN, Hamazaki T, Pershing AJ, Qian SS, Read AJ, Reilly SB, Torres L, Werner FE (2006) Techniques for cetacean–habitat modelling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 310:271–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts CM, Branch G, Bustamante RH, Castilla JC, Dugan J et al (2003) Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecol Appl 13:S215–S228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson LM, Elith J, Hobday AJ, Pearson RG, Kendall BE, Possingham HP, Richardson AJ (2011) Pushing the limits in marine species distribution modelling: lessons from the land present challenges and opportunities. Global Ecol Biogeogr 20(6):789–802

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodgers AR, Carr AP, Beyer HL, Smith L, Kie JG (2007) HRT: home range tools for ArcGIS. Version 1.1. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

  • Russ GR, Cheal AJ, Dolman AM, Esmlie MJ, Evans RD, Miller I, Sweatman H, Williamson DH (2008) Rapid increase in fish numbers follows creation of world’s largest marine reserve network. Curr Biol 18(12):514–515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schofield G, Hobson VJ, Fossette S, Lilley MKS, Katselidis KA, Hays GC (2010) Fidelity to foraging sites, consistency of migration routes and habitat modulation of home range by sea turtles. Divers Distrib 16:840–853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schofield G, Scott R, Dimadi A, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Koutsoubas D, Lilley MKS, Pantis JD, Karagouni AD, Hays GC (2013a) Evidence based marine protected area planning for a highly mobile endangered marine vertebrate. Biol Conserv 161:101–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schofield G, Dimadi A, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Koutsoubas D, Lilley MKS, Luckman A, Pantis JD, Karagouni AD, Hays GC (2013b) Satellite tracking large numbers of individuals to infer population level dispersal and core areas for the protection of an endangered species. Divers Distrib 19(7):834–844

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sequeira AMM, Mellin C, Meekan MG, Sims DW, Bradshaw CJA (2013) Inferred global connectivity of whale shark Rhincodon typus populations. J Fish Biol 82:367–389

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shaffer SA, Tremblay Y, Weimerskirch H, Scott D, Thompson DR, Sager PM, Moller H, Taylor GA, Foley DG, Block BA, Costa DP (2006) Migratory shearwaters integrate oceanic resources across the Pacific ocean in an endless summer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(34):12799–12802

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shillinger GL, Palacios DM, Bailey H, Bograd SJ, Swithenbank AM, Gaspar P, Wallace BP, Spotila JR, Paladino FV, Piedra R, Eckert SA, Block BA (2008) Persistent leatherback turtle migrations present opportunities for conservation. PLoS Biol 6(7):1408–1416

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shogren JF, Tschirhart J, Anderson T, Whritenour AA, Neissinger SR, Brookshire D, Brown GM Jr, Coursey D, Innes R, Meyer SM (1999) Why economics matters for endangered species protection. Conserv Biol 13(6):1257–1261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sleeman JC, Meekan MG, Wilson SG, Polovina JJ, Stevens JD, Boggs GS, Bradshaw CJA (2010) To go or not to go with the flow: environmental influences on whale shark movement patterns. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 390:84–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Speed CW, Field IC, Meekan MG, Bradshaw CJA (2010) Complexities of coastal shark movements and their implications for management. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 408:275–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sperling JB, Guinea ML (2004) A harness for attachment of satellite transmitters on flatback turtles. Mar Turt Newsl 103:11–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Swihart RK, Slade NA (1985) Influence of sampling interval on estimates of home-range size. J Wildlife Manage 49:1019–1025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tremblay Y, Shaffer SA, Fowler SL, Kuhn PE, McDonald BI, Weise MJ, Bost CA, Weimerskirch H, Crocker DE, Goebel ME, Costa DP (2006) Interpolation of animal tracking data in a fluid environment. J Exp Biol 209:128–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Hurley BJ, Finkbeiner EM, Bolten AB, Chaloupka MY, Hutchinson BJ, Abreu-Grobois FA, Amorocho D, Bjorndal KA, Bourjea J, Bowen BW, Dueñas RB, Casale P, Choudhury BC, Costa A, Dutton PH, Fallabrino A, Girard A, Girondot M, Godfrey MH, Hamann M, López-Mendilaharsu M, Marcovaldi MA, Mortimer JA, Musick JA, Nel R, Pilcher NJ, Seminoff JA, Troëng S, Witherington B, Mast RB (2010) Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales. PLoS ONE 5:e12

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiteway TG (2009) Australian bathymetry and topography grid, June 2009. Geoscience Australia Record 2009/21, 46 pp

  • Whiting SD, Hartley S, Lalara S, White D, Bara T, Maminyamunja C, Wurramarrba L (2006) Hawksbill turtle tracking as part of initial sea turtle research and conservation at Groote Eylandt, Northern Australia. Mar Turt Newsl 114:14–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiting SD, Long JL, Coyne M (2007) Migration routes and foraging behaviour of olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea in northern Australia. Endanger Species Res 3:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams R, Grand J, Hooker SK et al (2013) Prioritizing global marine mammal habitats using density maps in place of range maps. Ecography 36:1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson SG, Polovina JJ, Stewart BS, Meekan MG (2006) Movements of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) tagged at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Mar Biol 148:1157–1166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witt MJ, Bonguno EA, Broderick AC, Coyne MS, Formia A, Gibudi A, Munguengui AG, Moussounda C, Safou MN, Mougessono S, Parnell RJ, Sounguet G-P, Verhage S, Godley BJ (2011) Tracking leatherback turtles from the world’s largest rookery: assessing threats across the South Atlantic. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 278:2338–2347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Womble JN, Gende SM (2013) Post breeding season migrations of a top predator, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), from a marine protected area in Alaska. PlosOne 8(2):e55386

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zappes CA, Ventura da Silva C, Pontalti M, Danielski ML, Madeira Di Beneditto AP (2013) The conflict between the southern right whale and coastal fisheries on the southern coast of Brazil. Mar Policy 38:428–437

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Chevron Australia (D. Moro and R. Lagdon) and BHP Billiton (S. Mavrick) for the funding and logistical support for this project. Thanks to staff and volunteers at Pendoley Environmental for field support; notably, P. Tod, R. Murliss, N. Sillem, K. Ball, L. Claessen, T. Sunderland and N. Fitzsimmons. We thank P. Tod of Crackpots Ltd for supply of harnesses and attachment advice. Satellite attachment was conducted under the Department of Environment and Conservation Licence numbers: SF005670, SF006705, SF006706, SF007088, SF007143, SF007144, SF007641 and SF007643. GIS laboratory facilities at Deakin University, Warrnambool, Victoria were used for spatial analyses. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gail Schofield.

Additional information

Communicated by R. Lewison.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1448 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pendoley, K.L., Schofield, G., Whittock, P.A. et al. Protected species use of a coastal marine migratory corridor connecting marine protected areas. Mar Biol 161, 1455–1466 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-014-2433-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-014-2433-7

Keywords

  • Kernel Density Estimate
  • Marine Reserve
  • Humpback Whale
  • Marine Turtle
  • Whale Shark