Marine Biology

, Volume 160, Issue 11, pp 2981–2992 | Cite as

Contrasting diel patterns in vertical movement and locomotor activity of whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef

  • Adrian C. GleissEmail author
  • Serena Wright
  • Nikolai Liebsch
  • Rory P. Wilson
  • Brad Norman
Original Paper


Activity patterns of animals often relate to environmental variables such as food availability and predation pressure. Technological advances are providing us with new tools to monitor and better understand these activity patterns. We used animal-attached data loggers recording acceleration and depth to compare activity patterns and vertical habitat use of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Whale sharks showed a moderate reverse diel vertical migration but exhibited a clear crepuscular pattern in locomotory activity. Peak activity occurred at sunset, whereas vertical movement peaked prior to this. Typical ram surface filter feeding could be identified and occurred primarily during sunset and the first hours of night. At such times, direct observations indicated whale sharks were feeding on tropical krill swarms. Kinematic analysis of postural data and data from vertical movement suggests that whale sharks at Ningaloo spend ~8 min per day actively ram surface filter feeding. Considering the high biomass present in krill schools, it is estimated that whale sharks at Ningaloo have a similar energy intake as those at other aggregation sites. Diel patterns in activity and diving behaviour suggest that whale sharks have tuned their diving behaviour in anticipation of the formation of these high-density patches which appear to only be periodically, but predictably available at sunset. Our results confirm that diel patterns in vertical habitat selection and vertical movements do not necessarily reflect patterns in activity and foraging behaviour. Direct quantification of activity and behaviour is required in gaining accurate representation of diel activity patterns.


Vertical Movement Aggregation Site Diving Behaviour Diel Pattern Whale Shark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



S.W. is funded by a Postgraduate Scholarship from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles. A.C.G. is funded by a Wingate Foundation Scholarship and a Swansea University Research Fees Scholarship. B.N. is funded through ECOCEAN Inc. and Murdoch University Research Studentship. Three anonymous referees, Sabrina Fossette and Graeme Hays gave helpful suggestions that greatly improved the quality of this paper. Whale shark fieldwork was funded by Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines (Ocean Fund), the Murdoch University Foundation and a Rolex Award for Enterprise under permit by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC). The crew of RV Bo Kooling, L. Longley, G. Shedrawi, H. Shortland-Jones, D. Morgan, S. Lindfield, D. Bradley, E. Wilson, DEC and Department of Fisheries, Western Australia provided essential field support. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Clive “Q” Francis—without Clive, none of our tags would have ever been deployed on whale sharks.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian C. Gleiss
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  • Serena Wright
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nikolai Liebsch
    • 3
  • Rory P. Wilson
    • 1
  • Brad Norman
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Swansea Lab for Animal Movement, Bioscience, College of ScienceSwansea UniversitySwanseaWales, UK
  2. 2.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)LowestoftUK
  3. 3.Customized Animal Tracking SolutionsMoffat BeachAustralia
  4. 4.ECOCEAN IncFremantleAustralia
  5. 5.Freshwater Fish Group & Fish Health Unit, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  6. 6.Hopkins Marine StationStanford UniversityPacific GroveUSA

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