Marine Biology

, Volume 160, Issue 10, pp 2581–2589 | Cite as

Molecular phylogeny and zoogeography of marine sculpins in the genus Gymnocanthus (Teleostei; Cottidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

  • Aya YamazakiEmail author
  • Alexander Markevich
  • Hiroyuki Munehara
Original Paper


Gymnocanthus is the most widely distributed genus in the family Cottidae, with six species distributed in the high-latitude area of northern hemisphere. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the divergence times of species in the genus, 2,548 bp of the partial sequences of the 12–16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b gene were analyzed. Our results suggest the monophyletic genus, which arose in the Aleutian Archipelago, divided into a shallow-water group and a deep-water group 8.1 million years ago (Ma). G. tricuspis of the shallow-water group firstly migrated from the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean 5.0 Ma when the Bering Strait first opened. A second migration occurred in the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene after which G. pistilliger and G. intermedius diverged 3.9 Ma. Our findings are discussed within an evolutionary and zoogeographic context.


Markov Chain Monte Carlo Arctic Ocean Parsimony Informative Site Preopercular Spine Maximum Standard Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank T.W. Pietch, D. Pitruk, M. Yabe, O. Tsuruoka, R. Yokoyama and J. Inoue for their constructive suggestions, and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Russian Academy of Sciences, Oshoro maru (a training ship of Hokkaido University), O. Yamamura, Y. Koya, N. Sato, T. Abe and S. Awata for collecting fish samples. We also thank J. Bower for checking English grammar. This study was funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We also thank three anonymous reviewers who gave us useful advices.

Supplementary material

227_2013_2250_MOESM1_ESM.eps (2.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (EPS 2363 kb)
227_2013_2250_MOESM2_ESM.docx (55 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 55 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aya Yamazaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Markevich
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Munehara
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan
  2. 2.Far Eastern Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Division, Russian Academy of ScienceVladivostokRussia
  3. 3.Usujiri Fisheries Station, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan

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