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Marine Biology

, Volume 158, Issue 8, pp 1791–1804 | Cite as

Analysis of global and local population stratification of finless porpoises Neophocaena phocaenoides in Chinese waters

  • Xiang Li
  • Yingying Liu
  • Athanasia C. Tzika
  • Qian ZhuEmail author
  • Karine Van DoninckEmail author
  • Michel C. Milinkovitch
Original Paper

Abstract

The existence of three distinct populations is widely accepted for the finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in Chinese waters: the Yellow Sea, Yangtze River, and South China Sea populations. Here, we use nine species-specific microsatellite loci, the complete mitochondrial DNA control region (912 bp), and the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) to further investigate potential population stratification in the Yellow Sea using 147 finless porpoise samples from the Bohai Sea and adjacent northern Yellow Sea, two regions that were largely underrepresented in previous genetic studies. Our F-statistics analyses confirm the previously described three populations, but further demonstrate significant genetic differentiation between the [Bohai + northern Yellow] Sea and the southern Yellow Sea. On the other hand, median-joining network analyses do not exhibit well-differentiated haplotype groups among different geographic populations, suggesting the existence of shared ancestral haplotypes. Levels of microsatellite diversity are moderate to high (mean H E = 0.794) among the 147 [Bohai + northern Yellow] Sea finless porpoises and no recent bottleneck was detected, whereas mtDNA control region and cytochrome b gene diversity is low to moderate. The microsatellite genotypic and mtDNA haplotypic data also confirm the presence of mother-calf pairs in single-net bycatch cases. The results presented here highlight the necessity to treat the [Bohai + northern Yellow] Sea population (highly impacted by anthropogenic threats) as a separate Management Unit.

Keywords

Mismatch Distribution Yangtze River Finless Porpoise Common Dolphin Bayesian Skyline Plot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Mu Ma, Yumiao Sun, Cuihua Tao, Yanan Liu, Ting Zhang, Qi Zhao, Can Zhou, Mengxuan Cui, Qinglin Ma, and Xiang Xing for assisting fieldwork, sample collection, and measurements. We thank Chiou-Ju Yao for useful suggestions regarding mtDNA control region experiments and critical comments to the early version of the manuscript. We also thank Daniel Monteyne, Eva D’Amico, Raphaël Helaers, Julien Guglielmini, and Lise-Marie Pigneur for technical help. Funds were provided to QZ by the Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (HE09701 (1), HE09702 (1)), International Cooperation Department, State Oceanic Administration (HC10701-10(1)), Environmental Protection Department, State Oceanic Administration (HD10301-10(1)), Commonweal Project, State Oceanic Administration, China (201105011) and the Shandong Natural Science Foundation (Y2007D75). Funds were provided to MCM by the University of Geneva, the Georges & Antoine Claraz Foundation (Switzerland), the Ernst & Lucie Schmidheiny Foundation (Switzerland), and the National Fund for Scientific Research Belgium (FNRS). ACT is post-doctoral fellow at the FNRS, Belgium. X. Li is a PhD candidate supported by the Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA), Belgium.

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The experiments comply with the current laws of China.

Supplementary material

227_2011_1692_MOESM1_ESM.doc (396 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 396 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiang Li
    • 1
  • Yingying Liu
    • 2
  • Athanasia C. Tzika
    • 3
    • 4
  • Qian Zhu
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • Karine Van Doninck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michel C. Milinkovitch
    • 3
  1. 1.URBE-Laboratory of Evolutionary Genetics and Ecology (LEGE), Department of BiologyUniversity of Namur (FUNDP)NamurBelgium
  2. 2.Ocean College, Shandong University at WeihaiWeihaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and EvolutionLaboratory of Artificial and Natural Evolution (LANE), Sciences IIIGeneva 4Switzerland
  4. 4.Evolutionary Biology and EcologyUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  5. 5.Third Institute of OceanographyState Oceanic AdministrationXiamenPeople’s Republic of China

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