Seasonal contrasts in abundance and reproductive parameters of Penilia avirostris (Cladocera, Ctenopoda) in a coastal subtropical area
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- Miyashita, L.K., Pompeu, M., Gaeta, S.A. et al. Mar Biol (2010) 157: 2511. doi:10.1007/s00227-010-1515-4
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We studied the population dynamics and the reproductive biology of Penilia avirostris during three consecutive years on the inner shelf off Ubatuba, Brazil. Penilia avirostris individuals and its eggs and embryos were counted, measured, and classified into stages. The species occurred throughout the studied period, in a wide temperature range (14.8–28.2°C). Cladoceran densities were usually higher (>2,000 ind m−3) in warm seasons, when the water column was stratified as a consequence of bottom intrusions of the cold- and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water. Juveniles, non-reproducing females, and parthenogenic females were the dominant developmental stages. Males and gamogenic females were rare and only occurred when females reached peak abundances. This suggests that in tropical and subtropical coastal seas gamogenesis in P. avirostris is not as common as in temperate seas, but may play a significant role in the density-dependent control of the population preceding unfavourable periods.