DNA barcoding of Pacific Canada’s fishes
- 1k Downloads
DNA barcoding—sequencing a standard region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (COI)—promises a rapid, accurate means of identifying animals to a species level. This study establishes that sequence variability in the barcode region permits discrimination of 98% of 201 fish species from the Canadian Pacific. The average sequence variation within species was 0.25%, while the average distance separating species within genera was 3.75%. The latter value was considerably lower than values reported in other studies, reflecting the dominance of the Canadian fauna by members of the young and highly diverse genus Sebastes. Although most sebastids possessed distinctive COI sequences, four species did not. As a partial offset to these cases, the barcode records indicated the presence of a new, broadly distributed species of Paraliparis and the possibility that Paraliparis pectoralis is actually a species pair. The present study shows that most fish species in Pacific Canadian waters correspond to a single, tightly cohesive array of barcode sequences that are distinct from those of any other species, but also highlights some taxonomic issues that need further investigation.
KeywordsIntrogressive Hybridization Sequence Congruence Barcoding System Prime Cocktail Rapid Sample Processing
This study was supported by the Canadian Barcode of Life Network through funding from NSERC and Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute. We thank the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard for ship time and other support during the cruises where specimens were collected. We also thank Ken Fong, Graham Gillespie, Gavin Hanke, Katy Hind, John Klymko, and Dennis Rutherford for help with specimen collections and Mark Stoeckle for sharing his idea of the half-logarithmic do plots for genetic distances.
- Andriashev AP, Pitruk DL (1993) Review of the ultra-abyssal (hadal) genus Pseudoliparis (Scorpaeniformes, Liparidae) with a description of a new species from the Japan trench. J Ichthyol 33:31–39Google Scholar
- Burns JM, Janzen DH, Hajibabaei M, Hallwachs W, Hebert PDN (2007) DNA barcodes of closely related (but morphologically and ecologically distinct) species of skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) can differ by only one to three nucleotides. J Lepid Soc 61:138–153Google Scholar
- Froese R, Pauly D (2006) Fishbase. World Wide Web electronic publicationGoogle Scholar
- Hart JL (1973) Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull Fish Res Board Can 180:740Google Scholar
- Hebert PDN, Ratnasingham S, deWaard JR (2003b) Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 270:S96–S99Google Scholar
- Hebert PDN, Stoeckle MY, Zemlak TS, Francis CM (2004b) Identification of birds through DNA Barcodes. Public Libr Sci Biol 2:e312Google Scholar
- Hubert N, Hanner R, Holm E, Mandrak NE, Taylor E, Burridge M, Watkinson D, Dumont P, Curry A, Bentzen P, Zhang J, April J, Bernatchez L (2008) Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes. Public Libr Sci One 3:e2490Google Scholar
- Meyer CP, Paulay G (2005) DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling. Public Libr Sci Biol 3:2229–2238Google Scholar
- Nelson J (1994) Fishes of the world. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ward RD, Hanner R, Hebert PDN (2009) The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL. J Fish Biol 73:1–28Google Scholar