Skip to main content

The morphogenesis of ephyra in Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

Abstract

The morphogenesis of ephyrae of Atorella vanhoeffeni Bigelow, 1909 (Werner, 1967) and of Nausithoe maculata Jarms, 1990 during strobilation is described. We found differences in the developmental pattern of marginal structures and structural changes of longitudinal muscle tubes in particular. During strobilation the polyp’s tetraradiate symmetry is passed to the ephyra of both taxa as a tetraradiate central symmetry that we consider a major plesiomorphic character. The present results also indicate divergent patterns of ephyra development during strobilation that lead to variable marginal symmetries of ephyrae and thus of medusae. Therefore, the marginal symmetry of medusae of N. maculata is octoradiate and of A. vanhoeffeni is hexaradiate. We conclude the latter is stated as derived pattern. These results lead us to maintain both families Nausithoidae and Atorellidae.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. Adam H, Czihak G (1964) Arbeitsmethoden der makroskopischen und mikroskopischen anatomie. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bigelow HB (1909) Rep. Sci. Res. Exped. Eastern Tropical Pacific US Fish Comm. “St. Albatross” 1904–1905. XVI. Medusae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 37:1–243

  3. Bigelow HB (1928) Scyphomedusae from the arcturus oceanographic expedition. Zool NY 8:495–524

    Google Scholar 

  4. Brandt JF (1835) Ausführliche Beschreibung der von C.H. Mertens auf seiner Weltumsegelung beobachteten Schirmquallen. Mem Acad Sci St Petersb Sci Nat Ser 6.2:237–411

    Google Scholar 

  5. Calder DR (1982) Life history of the Canonball Jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris L. Agassiz, 1860 (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatida). Biol Bull 162:149–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chapman DM, Werner B (1972) Structure of a solitary and a colonial species of Stephanoscyphus (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) with observations on periderm repair. Helgoländer Wiss Meeresunters 23:393–421

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Forskal P (1775) In: Niebuhr C (ed) Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observati. Hafniae, Moeller, p 164

  8. Goette A (1886) Verzeichnis der Medusen, welche von Dr. Sander, Stabsarzt auf S.M.S. “Prinz Adalbert” gesammelt wurden. Sitzber Akad Wien 39:831–837

    Google Scholar 

  9. Haeckel E (1880) Das System der Medusen. 2. Hälfte des 1. Teiles der Monographie der Medusen: system der Acraspeden. Gustav Fischer, Fischer

    Google Scholar 

  10. Jarms G (1990) Neubeschreibung dreier Arten der Gattung Nausithoe (Coronata, Scyphozoa) sowie Wiederbeschreibung der Art Nausithoe marginata Kölliker, 1853. Mitt Hamb Zool Mus Inst 87:7–39

    Google Scholar 

  11. Jarms G (1997) The polyps of Coronatae (Scyphozoa), a review and some new results. In: Proceedings of 6th international conference on coelenterate biology, 1995, pp 271–278

  12. Jarms G, Båmstedt U, Tiemann H, Martinussen MB, Fosså JH (1999) The holopelagic life cycle of the deep-sea medusa Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Sarsia 84:55–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Jarms G (2001) The life cycle of Nausithoe hagenbecki spec. nov. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Mitt Hamb Zool Mus Inst 98:13–22

    Google Scholar 

  14. Jarms G, Morandini AC, Silveira FL (2002) Cultivation of polyps and medusae of Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with a brief review of important characters. Helgol Mar Res 56:203–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Kato K, Aochi M, Ozato K (1973) Developmental aspects of strobilation in Aurelia aurita. Publs Seto Mar Biol Lab 20:179–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kawaguti S, Matsuno A (1981) Anew Species of the Coronatae, Scyphozoa, from the Japan Sea; Atorella japonica n. sp. Bull Kawasaki Para Med Coll 1:15–21

    Google Scholar 

  17. Komai T (1935) On Stephanoscyphus and Nausithoë. Memoirs of the College of Science, Kyoto Imperial University (Ser B) 10:289–339

  18. Lo Bianco S, Mayer P (1890) Spongicola und Nausithoe. Zool Anz 13:687–688

    Google Scholar 

  19. Matsuno A, Kawaguti S (1991) An ultrastructural study of the polyp and strobila of Atorella japonica (Cnidaria, Coronatae) with respect to muscles and nerves. Hydrobiologia 216–217:39–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mills CE, Larson RL, Youngbluth MJ (1987) A new species of Coronatae Scyphomedusa from the Bahamas, Atorella octogonos. Bull Mar Sci 40(3):423–427

    Google Scholar 

  21. Morandini AC, Jarms G (2005) New combination for two coronate polyp species (Atorellidae, Coronatae, Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). Contrib Zoo 74(1/2):117–123

    Google Scholar 

  22. Romeis B (1989) Mikroskopische Technik. Oldenbourg, München

    Google Scholar 

  23. Silveira FL, Morandini AC (1997) Nausithoe aurea n.sp. (Scyphozoa: Coronatae: Nausithoidae), a species with two pathways of reproduction after strobilation: sexual and asexual. Contr Zool 66(4):235–246

    Google Scholar 

  24. Thiel ME (1936) Coronatae. In: Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs: 2 (2/3). Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp 321–480

  25. Vanhoeffen E (1902) Die Acraspeden Medusen der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition 1898–1899. Wiss Erg Valdivia 3:1–52

    Google Scholar 

  26. Werner B (1967) Morphologie, Systematik und Lebensgeschichte von Stephanoscyphus (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) sowie seine Bedeutung für die Evolution der Scyphozoa. Verh. Dt. zool. Ges. (Göttingen, 1966). Zool Anz (Suppl) 30:297–319

    Google Scholar 

  27. Werner B (1971) Stephanoscyphus planulophorus n. spec., ein neuer Scyphopolyp mit einem neuen Entwicklungsmodus. Helgoländer Wiss Meeresunters 22:120–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Werner B (1971) Ein neuer, bisher unbekannter Entwicklungsmodus bei einem Scyphopolypen. Separatum Experientia. Birkhäuser 27:351–353

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Werner B (1974) Stephanoscyphus eumedusoides n. spec. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae), ein Höhlentyp mit einem neuen Entwicklungsmodus. Helgoländer Wiss Meeresunters 26:434–463

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Werner B (1984) Cnidaria. In: von Gruner H.-E. (Herausgaber) (ed) Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie, Band 1: Wirbellose Tiere, 2. Teil: Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Mesozoa, Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Entoprocta, Nemathelminthes, Priapulida. 4. Aufl. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 11–305

Download references

Acknowledgments

The results are part of the diploma thesis “Entstehung von hexaradialen (Atorella) und octoradialen (Nausithoe) Medusen aus tetrradialen Stephanoscyphistomae (Coronatae, Scyphozoa)” of Norman Eggers, carried out at the Department of Zoology, University of Hamburg. We thank an unknown reviewer for correcting the English and constructive remarks.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gerhard Jarms.

Additional information

Communicated by O. Kinne.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Eggers, N., Jarms, G. The morphogenesis of ephyra in Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Mar Biol 152, 495–502 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0719-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Longitudinal Muscle
  • Soft Body
  • Gastric Cavity
  • Benzyl Benzoate
  • Aluminium Sulphate